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This paper considers the creation of Complex Engineered Systems (CESs) and the Systems Engineering approach by which they are designed. The changing nature of the challenges facing Systems Engineering is discussed, with particular focus on the increasing complexity of modern systems. It is argued that modern complexity poses a major challenge to our ability(More)
In order to obtain information about the metabolism of methanol in plants, gene expression in response to methanol stimulation was analysed in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana through the use of a 26,090 element oligonucleotide microarray. Following confirmation of data and the application of selection criteria, a total of 484 (1.9%) transcripts were shown to(More)
A method to quantify the indigo precursor indican (indoxyl-beta-D-glucoside) in Polygonum tinctorium L. has been developed. Plant material was extracted in deionized water, and indican was identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Results confirmed that with this(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. METHODS In this international,(More)
Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance(More)
Congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula (APF) is a rare condition. In most cases, the symptoms and complications develop during infancy. We report here the incidental finding of a large and solitary congenital APF in a 13-year-old boy, with subsequent related clinical complications. At angiography, an APF connecting the left hepatic artery and the(More)
OBJECTIVE Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) can lead to life-threatening bleeding, and its optimum treatment has not been established. We review the experience of managing KMP in a single institution. METHODS A retrospective chart review on all children with KMP treated at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, over an 18 yr period was carried out. (More)
BACKGROUND Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne var. Elsanta) plants were grown in polytunnels covered with three polythene films that transmitted varying levels of ultraviolet (UV) light. Fruit were harvested under near-commercial conditions and quality and yield were measured. During ripening, changes in the colour parameters of individual fruit were(More)