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Substantial progress has been made in the last decade in identifying several antigens from Haemonchus contortus which, in their native form, stimulate useful levels of protective immunity (70-95% reductions in faecal egg output) in the ovine host. Much work has focussed on proteins/protein complexes expressed on the surface of the worm gut which are exposed(More)
Anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematodes of small ruminants is widespread and, in some parts of the world, threatens the sustainability of sheep production. The genetic changes underlying resistance to anthelmintics, particularly ivermectin (IVM), remain to be determined. The majority of studies to date have investigated target site mutations;(More)
Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of(More)
Global agriculture will be required to intensify production from a shrinking natural resource base. Helminth infections of ruminants are a major constraint on efficient livestock production. The current challenge is to develop diagnostic methods that detect the production impact of helminth infections on farms in order to target control measures and(More)
Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family (P-glycoproteins, Half-transporters and Multidrug Resistant Proteins) potentially play a role in the development of anthelmintic resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of ABC transporters in anthelmintic resistance in the bovine parasite, Cooperia oncophora.(More)
The climate in the UK is changing, with a trend towards increased rainfall in the autumn and winter and warmer average temperatures throughout the year. There has also been a 4-week extension of the herbage growing season over the past 40 years. These changes may have implications for the epidemiology of sheep helminth parasites. Here, we describe(More)
The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is common in many parts of Great Britain. To detect liver fluke infection and to assess whether fasciolicide treatment has been successful, the faecal egg count (FEC) and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) are widely used. Rumen fluke is also increasingly reported from Great Britain, but its species identity is yet(More)
In the UK, recent mean temperatures have consistently increased by between 1°C and 4°C compared to the 30-year monthly averages. Furthermore, all available predictive models for the UK indicate that the climate is likely to change further and feature more extreme weather events and a trend towards wetter, milder winters and hotter, drier summers. These(More)
Ivermectin (IVM) resistance is an emerging problem for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle such as Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. Although there is still a poor understanding of the molecular basis of macrocyclic lactone (ML)-resistance, it is clear that IVM exerts its activity by binding to glutamate-gated chloride (GluCl)(More)