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Trophozoites of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum hydrolyze erythrocyte hemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. Cysteine protease inhibitors block hemoglobin degradation, indicating that a cysteine protease plays a key role in this process. A principal trophozoite cysteine protease was purified by(More)
Malaria remains one of the most important diseases of the developing world, killing 1–3 million people and causing disease in 300–500 million people annually. Most severe malaria is caused by the blood-borne APICOMPLEXAN parasite Plasmodium falciparum and occurs in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The two most widely used anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine(More)
To obtain free amino acids for protein synthesis, trophozoite stage malaria parasites feed on the cytoplasm of host erythrocytes and degrade hemoglobin within an acid food vacuole. The food vacuole appears to be analogous to the secondary lysosomes of mammalian cells. To determine the enzymatic mechanism of hemoglobin degradation, we incubated(More)
Several antibiotics possess antimalarial properties, although the mechanisms by which they kill malaria parasites have been poorly understood. Recent data suggest that the target for multiple antimalarial antibiotics is the apicoplast, a chloroplast-like organelle of uncertain function. Translation inhibitors (such as tetracyclines, clindamycin and(More)
A number of cysteine proteases of malaria parasites have been described, and many more putative cysteine proteases are suggested by analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence. Studies with protease inhibitors have suggested roles for cysteine proteases in hemoglobin hydrolysis, erythrocyte rupture, and erythrocyte invasion by erythrocytic malaria(More)
Erythrocytic malaria parasites degrade hemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to acquire free amino acids and maintain parasite homeostasis. Hemoglobin hydrolysis appears to be a cooperative process requiring cysteine proteases (falcipains) and aspartic proteases (plasmepsins), but the specific roles of different enzymes in this process are unknown. We(More)
BACKGROUND Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is endemic among adult populations in Africa. A prevailing view is that childhood transmission is primarily responsible for the high seroprevalence of KSHV among adults that is observed throughout the continent. However, few studies have directly examined children, particularly in locations(More)
BACKGROUND As malaria control efforts intensify, it is critical to monitor trends in disease burden and measure the impact of interventions. A key surveillance indicator is the incidence of malaria. Yet measurement of incidence is challenging. The slide positivity rate (SPR) has been used as a surrogate measure of malaria incidence, but limited data exist(More)
BACKGROUND Effective treatment remains a mainstay of malaria control, but it is unfortunately strongly compromised by drug resistance, particularly in Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite. Although P. falciparum chemoresistance is well recognized all over the world, limited data are available on the distribution and prevalence of(More)