Philip J. Larkin

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It is concluded from a review of the literature that plant cell culture itself generates genetic variability (somaclonal variation). Extensive examples are discussed of such variation in culture subclones and in regenerated plants (somaclones). A number of possible mechanisms for the origin of this phenomenon are considered. It is argued that this variation(More)
The anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthetic pathways share common intermediates until leucocyanidin, which may be used by leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) to produce anthocyanin, or the enzyme leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) to produce catechin, a precursor of PA. The Arabidopsis mutant tannin deficient seed 4 (tds4-1) has a reduced PA(More)
Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) catalyzes the synthesis of catechin, an initiating monomer of condensed tannin or proanthocyanidin (PA) synthesis, from 3,4-cis-leucocyanidin and thus is the first committed step in PA biosynthesis. The enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from PA-rich leaves of the legume Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC, partially(More)
Genomic in situhybridization (GISH) to root-tip cells at mitotic metaphase, using genomic DNA probes from Thinopyrum intermedium and Pseudoroegneria strigosa, was used to examine the genomic constitution of Th. intermedium, the 56-chromosome partial amphiploid to wheat called Zhong 5 and disease-resistant derivatives of Zhong 5, in a wheat background.(More)
A recombinant promoter, pEmu, has been constructed to give a high level of gene expression in monocots. It is based on a truncated maize Adh1 promoter, with multiple copies of the Anaerobic Responsive Element from the maize Adh1 gene and ocs-elements from the octopine synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The pEmu promoter was one of 12 different(More)
We report on the silencing of codeinone reductase (COR) in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, using a chimeric hairpin RNA construct designed to silence all members of the multigene COR family through RNA interference (RNAi). After gene silencing, the precursor alkaloid (S)-reticuline—seven enzymatic steps upstream of codeinone—accumulated in transgenic(More)
Proanthocyanidin (PA), or condensed tannin, is a polymeric flavanol that accumulates in a number of tissues in a wide variety of plants. In Arabidopsis, we found that PA precursors (detected histochemically using OsO(4)) accumulate in the endothelial cell layer of the seed coat from the two-terminal cell stage of embryo development onwards. To understand(More)
Rusts and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) are among the main diseases affecting wheat production world wide for which wild relatives have been the source of a number of translocations carrying resistance genes. Nevertheless, along with desirable traits, alien translocations often carry deleterious genes. We have generated recombinants in a bread wheat(More)
Efficient tissue culture and regeneration methods were established using immature wheat embryos as expiants. Genotype differences in culturability were evident, and from the ten accessions most amenable to culture, a total of 2,846 plants were regenerated. Extensive somaclonal variation for morphological and biochemical traits was observed among 142(More)