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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by subjective reports of decreased concentration and an inability to sustain attention. Some empirical validation of these symptoms has been demonstrated via reduced performance on attentional tests among war veterans with PTSD. However, the significance of such findings is unclear given high(More)
Mean levels of the two hydrolases angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the dopamine metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and total protein concentration were examined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a group of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type, a group of(More)
In man, unconjugated plasma DA is normally undetectable or present in minute amounts. Twelve medication-free volunteers received a 1 mg dose of dexamethasone which produced pronounced increases of plasma free DA but not of other catecholamines. Mean plasma free dopamine levels after dexamethasone at 8 a.m. (155 +/- 102 pg/ml) and 4 p.m. (163 +/- 70 pg/ml)(More)
Exploratory activity, spontaneous alternation, learning and memory abilities were examined in the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) rat model of Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome and pair-fed controls (CT). PTD and CT animals showed normal retention of a single trial of a passive avoidance task acquired prior to the acute stages of thiamine(More)
The current study measured extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of excitatory amino acids before and during the onset of thiamine deficiency-induced pathologic lesions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daily pyrithiamine (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) and a thiamine-deficient diet (PTD). Microdialysates were simultaneously collected from probes inserted acutely(More)
Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with either 20 micrograms of dexamethasone or an equivalent volume of saline. The rats were then sacrificed at either one or four hours after the injections and their brains analyzed for monoamine and metabolite content using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical(More)
Previous studies have shown that following an acute bout of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) rats are impaired in learning appetitively and aversively motivated T-maze tasks. The present study examined if PTD-treated rats exhibit both anterograde and retrograde memory loss of an aversively motivated spatial navigation task. Histological(More)
Learning impairments were measured in rats following recovery from a subacute bout of thiamine deficiency. Behavioral training was carried out in an automated T-maze, beginning with paired run spatial delayed non-matching to sample (PR-1), then light-dark discrimination (LD), light-dark discrimination reversal (LD-R), spatial discrimination (SD), spatial(More)
In previous reports of studies of patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's psychosis, data were presented showing significant correlations between neuropsychometric measures of amnesia and the CSF levels of the major brain metabolite of norepinephrine (NE), which was consistently reduced among a large group of experimental subjects. Dopamine (DA) metabolite(More)
The relationship of thiamine deficiency to Wernicke's encephalopathy has been well established. The biochemical bases and physiologic mechanisms responsible for the pathologic changes and their selective distribution within the brain remain controversial. The present paper reviews recent biochemical, histopathological and pharmacological evidence of a(More)