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BACKGROUND Allosteric disulfide bonds regulate protein function when they break and/or form. They typically have a -RHStaple configuration, which is defined by the sign of the five chi angles that make up the disulfide bond. RESULTS All disulfides in NMR and X-ray protein structures as well as in refined structure datasets were compared and contrasted for(More)
BACKGROUND The synthetic tripeptide arsenical 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets the mitochondria of actively dividing but not quiescent endothelial cells, arresting their proliferation and causing apoptosis. Normal endothelial cells are much more sensitive to GSAO than tumor cells. To(More)
Disulphide bonds in secreted proteins are considered to be inert because of the oxidizing nature of the extracellular milieu. An exception to this rule is a reductase secreted by tumour cells that reduces disulphide bonds in the serine proteinase plasmin. Reduction of plasmin initiates proteolytic cleavage in the kringle 5 domain and release of the tumour(More)
CD4, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors that mediates cell-cell interactions in the immune system, is the primary receptor for HIV-1. The extracellular portion of CD4 is a concatenation of four immunoglobulin-like domains, D1 to D4. The D1, D2 and D4 domains each contain a disulfide bond. We show here that the D2 disulfide bond is(More)
Plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric protein that mediates adhesion of platelets to sites of vascular injury. Only the very large vWF multimers are effective in promoting platelet adhesion in flowing blood. A protein disulfide bond reductase in plasma reduces the average multimer size of vWF secreted by endothelial cells. This activity has(More)
Traumatic brain injury is a major public health concern and is characterised by both apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the lesion. Anatomical imaging is usually used to assess traumatic brain injuries and there is a need for imaging modalities that provide complementary cellular information. We sought to non-invasively image cell death in a mouse model(More)
Cross-strand disulphides (CSDs) are unusual bonds that link adjacent strands in the same beta-sheet. Their peculiarity relates to the high potential energy stored in these bonds, both as torsional energy in the highly strained disulphide linkage and as deformation energy stored in the sheet itself. CSDs are relatively rare in protein structures but are(More)
GSAO (4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) and PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) are tumour metabolism inhibitors that target adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) of the inner-mitochondrial membrane. Both compounds are currently being trialled in patients with solid tumours. The trivalent arsenical moiety of(More)
Information about subscriptions and ASH membership may be found online at: articles must include the digital object identifier (DOIs) and date of initial publication. priority; they are indexed by PubMed from initial publication. Citations to Advance online prior to final publication). Advance online articles are citable and establish publication yet(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. In contrast to some other tumor types, aberrant glucose metabolism is an important component of GBM growth and chemoresistance. Recent studies of human orthotopic GBM in mice and in situ demonstrated GBM cells rely on both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidation for glucose(More)