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BACKGROUND Allosteric disulfide bonds regulate protein function when they break and/or form. They typically have a -RHStaple configuration, which is defined by the sign of the five chi angles that make up the disulfide bond. RESULTS All disulfides in NMR and X-ray protein structures as well as in refined structure datasets were compared and contrasted for(More)
BACKGROUND The synthetic tripeptide arsenical 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets the mitochondria of actively dividing but not quiescent endothelial cells, arresting their proliferation and causing apoptosis. Normal endothelial cells are much more sensitive to GSAO than tumor cells. To(More)
The synthetic tripeptide arsenical 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino)p-phenylarsenoxide (p-GSAO) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that inactivates mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) by cross-linking a pair of matrix-facing cysteine residues. This causes an increase in superoxide levels and proliferation arrest of endothelial cells followed by(More)
Disulphide bonds in secreted proteins are considered to be inert because of the oxidizing nature of the extracellular milieu. An exception to this rule is a reductase secreted by tumour cells that reduces disulphide bonds in the serine proteinase plasmin. Reduction of plasmin initiates proteolytic cleavage in the kringle 5 domain and release of the tumour(More)
CD4, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors that mediates cell-cell interactions in the immune system, is the primary receptor for HIV-1. The extracellular portion of CD4 is a concatenation of four immunoglobulin-like domains, D1 to D4. The D1, D2 and D4 domains each contain a disulfide bond. We show here that the D2 disulfide bond is(More)
␤2-Glycoprotein I (␤2GPI) is an evolutionary conserved, abundant circulating protein. Although its function remains uncertain , accumulated evidence points toward interactions with endothelial cells and components of the coagula-tion system, suggesting a regulatory role in vascular biology. Our group has shown that thioredoxin 1 (TRX-1) generates free(More)
Plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric protein that mediates adhesion of platelets to sites of vascular injury. Only the very large vWF multimers are effective in promoting platelet adhesion in flowing blood. A protein disulfide bond reductase in plasma reduces the average multimer size of vWF secreted by endothelial cells. This activity has(More)
Cross-strand disulphides (CSDs) are unusual bonds that link adjacent strands in the same beta-sheet. Their peculiarity relates to the high potential energy stored in these bonds, both as torsional energy in the highly strained disulphide linkage and as deformation energy stored in the sheet itself. CSDs are relatively rare in protein structures but are(More)
VWF is a plasma protein that binds platelets to an injured vascular wall during thrombosis. When exposed to the shear forces found in flowing blood, VWF molecules undergo lateral self-association that results in a meshwork of VWF fibers. Fiber formation has been shown to involve thiol/disulfide exchange between VWF molecules. A C-terminal fragment of VWF(More)
Traumatic brain injury is a major public health concern and is characterised by both apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the lesion. Anatomical imaging is usually used to assess traumatic brain injuries and there is a need for imaging modalities that provide complementary cellular information. We sought to non-invasively image cell death in a mouse model(More)