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OBJECTIVE Antidepressants that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin (SSRIs) or norepinephrine (SNRIs) are effective in the treatment of disorders such as depression and anxiety. Cognitive psychological theories emphasize the importance of correcting negative biases of information processing in the nonpharmacological treatment of these disorders, but it is not(More)
OBJECTIVE Antidepressants that increase serotonin or norepinephrine in the brain are effective in treating depression, but there is no neuropsychological account of how these changes relieve depressive states. Cognitive theories suggest that biases in information processing lead depressed patients to make unrealistically negative judgments about themselves(More)
BACKGROUND The amygdala is believed to play a key role in processing emotionally salient, threat-relevant, events that require further online processing by cortical regions. Emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety have been associated with hyperactivity of the amygdala, but it is unknown whether antidepressant treatment directly affects amygdala(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute administration of an antidepressant increases positive affective processing in healthy volunteers, an effect that may be relevant to the therapeutic actions of these medications. The authors investigated whether this effect is apparent in depressed patients early in treatment, prior to changes in mood and symptoms. METHOD In a(More)
BACKGROUND The neuropharmacological actions of antidepressants are well characterised but our understanding of how these changes translate into improved mood are still emerging. AIMS To investigate whether actions of antidepressant drugs on emotional processing are a mediating factor in the effects of these drugs in depression. METHOD We examined key(More)
BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popular medications for anxiety and depression, but their effectiveness, particularly in patients with prominent symptoms of loss of motivation and pleasure, has been questioned. There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans. METHODS We studied 45 healthy(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of short-term treatment with reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, on emotional facial processing in healthy volunteers. Reboxetine was associated with a reduced amygdala response to fearful faces and increased activation to happy v. neutral facial expressions in(More)
BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are typically thought to have a delay of several weeks in the onset of their clinical effects. However, recent reports suggest they may have a much earlier therapeutic onset. A reduction in amygdala responsivity has been implicated in the therapeutic action of SSRIs. AIMS To investigate the effect(More)
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) induces depressive symptoms in 50-60% of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treated, recovered depressed patients. However, no reliable predictors of mood response to ATD have been established. In the present study, individual subject data of six ATD studies were pooled ('mega-analysis') in order to investigate(More)
Anxiety is associated with threat-related biases in information processing such as heightened attentional vigilance to potential threat. Such biases are an important focus of psychological treatments for anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in the treatment of a range of anxiety disorders. The aim of this study(More)