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The activity of the E2F transcription factor is regulated in part by pRB, the protein product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. Studies of tumor cells show that the p16(ink4a)/cdk4/cyclin D/pRB pathway is mutated in most forms of cancer, suggesting that the deregulation of E2F, and hence the cell cycle, is a common event in tumorigenesis.(More)
BACKGROUND A key challenge inhibiting the timely initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment is the loss to follow-up of mothers and their infants between the time of mothers' HIV diagnoses in pregnancy and return after delivery for early infant diagnosis of HIV. We sought to identify barriers to follow-up of HIV-exposed infants in rural Zambézia(More)
BACKGROUND Limited literacy skills are common in the United States (US) and are related to lower HIV knowledge and worse health behaviors and outcomes. The extent of these associations is unknown in countries like Mozambique, where no rigorously validated literacy and numeracy measures exist. METHODS A validated measure of literacy and numeracy, the Wide(More)
Patients with poor numeracy skills may have difficulty participating in shared-decision making, affecting their utilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We explored the relationship between numeracy, provider communication, and CRC screening. Data were from the 2007 National Cancer Institute Health Information Trends Survey. Individuals age 50(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence for interventions designed to prevent or reduce overweight and obesity in children younger than 2 years. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Web of Science, and references from relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION Included were published studies that evaluated an intervention(More)
Low mother/infant retention has impeded early infant diagnosis of HIV in rural Mozambique. We enhanced the referral process for postpartum HIV-infected women by offering direct accompaniment to the location of exposed infant testing before discharge. Retrospective record review for 395 women/infants (September 2009 to June 2010) found enhanced referral was(More)
Global AIDS programs such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) face a challenging health care management transition. HIV care must evolve from vertically-organized, externally-supported efforts to sustainable, locally controlled components that are integrated into the horizontal primary health care systems of host nations. We(More)
OBJECTIVE Early infant diagnosis (EID) is the first step in HIV care, yet 75% of HIV-exposed infants born at 2 hospitals in Mozambique failed to access EID. DESIGN Before/after study. SETTING Two district hospitals in rural Mozambique. PARTICIPANTS HIV-infected mother/HIV-exposed infant pairs (n = 791). INTERVENTION We planned 2 phases of(More)
OBJECTIVES Little is known about adult caregivers' ability to accurately dose pediatric antiretroviral medications. We aimed to characterize the frequency of dosing errors for liquid zidovudine using two dosing devices and to evaluate the association between HIV literacy and dosing errors in adults living with HIV infection. DESIGN Cross-sectional study(More)
Early achievements in biomedical approaches for HIV prevention included physical barriers (condoms), clean injection equipment (both for medical use and for injection drug users), blood and blood product safety, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. In recent years, antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of transmission (when the infected person(More)