Philip J. Bushnell

Learn More
 Increasing awareness that disorders of attention may underlie cognitive dysfunctions associated with intoxication and neurodegenerative disease has stimulated research into the neural bases of attention. Because attention comprises a constellation of hypothetical cognitive processes, it can only be inferred from behavior, of either human or non-human(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for trichloroethylene (TCE) in the male Long-Evans (LE) rat was needed to aid in evaluation of neurotoxicity data collected in this rodent stock. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model with the greatest possible specificity for the LE rat. The PBPK model consisted of 5 compartments: brain,(More)
The literature on behavioral effects of exposure to toluene is difficult to assess due, in part, to a wide variety of exposure conditions employed and outcomes measured. This study investigated whether previous experiments would be more consistent with each other if toluene exposure parameters were expressed not as concentration and duration, but as(More)
The preponderance of studies of tolerance to organophosphate (OP) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors indicates that functional recovery accompanies neurochemical compensations for the inhibited enzyme. Contrary to prediction, rats dosed with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) showed progressive and persistent impairment of cognitive and motor function(More)
Inhalation of organic solvents can affect vigilance and reaction time in humans. An animal model of vigilance was designed to assess the effects of toluene on these processes. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained to detect auditory signals (20-msec increases in the intensity of white noise). Two to 4 s after each signal (or blank period), two retractable(More)
Behavioral effects of organophosphates (OPs) typically decrease with repeated exposure, despite persistence of OP-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and downregulation of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors. To characterize this tolerance phenomenon, rats were trained to perform an appetitive operant task which allowed daily(More)
  • P J Bushnell
  • Fundamental and applied toxicology : official…
  • 1997
The risk from inhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is presently assessed on the basis of lifetime exposure to average concentrations of the vapor. This strategy yields rational predictions of risk if the product of concentration (C) and the duration of exposure (t) yields constant effects on health (Haber's Rule). The validity of this assumption was(More)
A spatial orienting task was used to assess attention in rats with selective cholinergic lesions of the basal forebrain. The task required each rat to press a lever in response to a visual target that could occur in one of two locations. A target could be preceded by a cue that either accurately predicted the location of the target (valid) or appeared in(More)
Strategies are needed for assessing the risks of exposures to airborne toxicants that vary over concentrations and durations. The goal of this project was to describe the relationship between the concentration and duration of exposure to inhaled trichloroethylene (TCE), a representative volatile organic chemical, tissue dose as predicted by a(More)
Behavioral paradigms applicable for use in both human and nonhuman subjects for investigating aspects of working/short-term memory are presented with a view towards exploring their strengths, weaknesses, and utility in a variety of experimental situations. Such procedures can be useful in teasing out specific aspects of mnemonic processes including(More)