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L6 myoblasts stably transfected with a GLUT4 cDNA harboring an exofacial myc epitope tag (L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts) were used to study the role of protein kinase B alpha (PKBalpha)/Akt1 in the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Surface GLUT4myc was detected by immunofluorescent labeling of the myc epitope in nonpermeabilized cells.(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance associates with chronic inflammation, and participatory elements of the immune system are emerging. We hypothesized that bacterial elements acting on distinct intracellular pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) acting on nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins,(More)
The cause of reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats was investigated. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into hindquarter muscles of 7-day diabetic rats were 70% and 50% lower, respectively, than in nondiabetic controls. Subcellular fractionation of hindquarter muscles yielded total crude membranes, plasma(More)
Acute exercise, like insulin, increases D-glucose uptake into rat hind limb muscles. Here we examine the distribution of the muscle glucose transporters GLUT-4 and GLUT-1 in plasma membrane and intracellular membrane fractions of skeletal muscle prepared from control, exercised, and acutely insulin-treated rats. Immunoblotting with an anti-GLUT-4 polyclonal(More)
Insulin-dependent phosphorylation of Akt target AS160 is required for GLUT4 translocation. Insulin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (Akt activators) or activation of conventional/novel (c/n) protein kinase C (PKC) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) all promote a rise in membrane GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and cultured cells. However, the(More)
Insulin stimulates the rate of glucose uptake into muscle and adipose cells by translocation of glucose transporters from an intracellular storage pool to the plasma membrane. This event requires the prior activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Here we report that insulin causes an increase in wortmannin-sensitive PI 3-kinase activity(More)
The cardioactive diterpene forskolin is a known activator of adenylate cyclase, but recently a specific interaction of this compound with the glucose transporter has been identified that results in the inhibition of glucose transport in several human and rat cell types. We have compared the sensitivity of basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport to(More)
The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate glucose transport and its regulation by insulin in easily accessible human cells, 2) to investigate the glucose transporter isoforms involved, and 3) to establish whether a defect in glucose transport is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, which is common in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(More)
A large and rapidly increasing body of evidence indicates that microglia-to-neuron signaling is essential for chronic pain hypersensitivity. Using multiple approaches, we found that microglia are not required for mechanical pain hypersensitivity in female mice; female mice achieved similar levels of pain hypersensitivity using adaptive immune cells, likely(More)
Like neuronal synaptic vesicles, intracellular GLUT4-containing vesicles must dock and fuse with the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating insulin-regulated glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells. GLUT4 colocalizes in part with the vesicle SNAREs VAMP2 and VAMP3. In this study, we used a single-cell fluorescence-based assay to compare the functional(More)