Philip J. Bilan

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L6 myoblasts stably transfected with a GLUT4 cDNA harboring an exofacial myc epitope tag (L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts) were used to study the role of protein kinase B alpha (PKBalpha)/Akt1 in the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Surface GLUT4myc was detected by immunofluorescent labeling of the myc epitope in nonpermeabilized cells.(More)
Insulin-dependent phosphorylation of Akt target AS160 is required for GLUT4 translocation. Insulin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (Akt activators) or activation of conventional/novel (c/n) protein kinase C (PKC) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) all promote a rise in membrane GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and cultured cells. However, the(More)
Like neuronal synaptic vesicles, intracellular GLUT4-containing vesicles must dock and fuse with the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating insulin-regulated glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells. GLUT4 colocalizes in part with the vesicle SNAREs VAMP2 and VAMP3. In this study, we used a single-cell fluorescence-based assay to compare the functional(More)
Insulin causes translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 to the membrane of muscle and fat cells, a process requiring Akt activation. The Rab GTPase-activating protein (Rab-GAP) AS160 is inhibited upon phosphorylation by insulin-activated Akt, thereby allowing GLUT4 translocation. Although several Rab proteins are detected on GLUT4 vesicles, the target(More)
Rad is a Ras-like GTPase that was isolated by subtraction cloning of human muscle and shown to have increased expression in some individuals with Type II diabetes. To ascertain the potential role of Rad in insulin-mediated signaling, we have overexpressed Rad in myocyte and adipocyte cell lines. Expression of Rad resulted in a 50-90% reduction in(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance associates with chronic inflammation, and participatory elements of the immune system are emerging. We hypothesized that bacterial elements acting on distinct intracellular pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) acting on nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins,(More)
Members of the Rad family of GTPases (including Rad, Gem, and Kir) possess several unique features of unknown function in comparison to other Ras-like proteins, with major N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, a lack of typical prenylation motifs, and several non-conservative changes in the sequence of the GTP binding domain. Here we show that Rad and Gem(More)
Skeletal muscle is the primary site of dietary glucose disposal, a function that depends on insulin-mediated exocytosis of GLUT4 vesicles to its cell surface. In skeletal muscle and adipocytes, this response involves Akt signaling to the Rab-GAP (GTPase-activating protein) AS160/TBC1D4. Intriguingly, the AS160-targeted Rabs appear to differ, with Rab8A(More)
The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate glucose transport and its regulation by insulin in easily accessible human cells, 2) to investigate the glucose transporter isoforms involved, and 3) to establish whether a defect in glucose transport is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, which is common in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(More)
The cause of reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats was investigated. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into hindquarter muscles of 7-day diabetic rats were 70% and 50% lower, respectively, than in nondiabetic controls. Subcellular fractionation of hindquarter muscles yielded total crude membranes, plasma(More)