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L6 myoblasts stably transfected with a GLUT4 cDNA harboring an exofacial myc epitope tag (L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts) were used to study the role of protein kinase B alpha (PKBalpha)/Akt1 in the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Surface GLUT4myc was detected by immunofluorescent labeling of the myc epitope in nonpermeabilized cells.(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance associates with chronic inflammation, and participatory elements of the immune system are emerging. We hypothesized that bacterial elements acting on distinct intracellular pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) acting on nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins,(More)
Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues contributes to insulin resistance. We recently reported monocyte/macrophage infiltration in mouse and human skeletal muscles. However, the molecular triggers of this infiltration are unknown, and the role of muscle cells in this context is poorly understood. Animal studies are not(More)
Insulin promotes glucose uptake into skeletal muscle through recruitment of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Rab GTPases are molecular switches mobilizing intracellular vesicles, and Rab13 is necessary for insulin-regulated GLUT4-vesicle exocytic translocation in muscle cells. We show that Rab13 engages the scaffold protein MICAL-L2 in(More)
A large and rapidly increasing body of evidence indicates that microglia-to-neuron signaling is essential for chronic pain hypersensitivity. Using multiple approaches, we found that microglia are not required for mechanical pain hypersensitivity in female mice; female mice achieved similar levels of pain hypersensitivity using adaptive immune cells, likely(More)
Insulin-dependent phosphorylation of Akt target AS160 is required for GLUT4 translocation. Insulin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (Akt activators) or activation of conventional/novel (c/n) protein kinase C (PKC) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) all promote a rise in membrane GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and cultured cells. However, the(More)
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Within adipose tissue of mice fed a high fat diet, resident and infiltrating macrophages assume a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by the production of cytokines which in turn impact on the surrounding tissue. However, inflammation is not restricted to adipose tissue and high fat-feeding is(More)
Skeletal muscles contain resident immune cell populations and their abundance and type is altered in inflammatory myopathies, endotoxemia or different types of muscle injury/insult. Within tissues, monocytes differentiate into macrophages and polarize to acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Skeletal muscle macrophages play a fundamental role in(More)
Like neuronal synaptic vesicles, intracellular GLUT4-containing vesicles must dock and fuse with the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating insulin-regulated glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells. GLUT4 colocalizes in part with the vesicle SNAREs VAMP2 and VAMP3. In this study, we used a single-cell fluorescence-based assay to compare the functional(More)
GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an(More)