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Insecticide resistance is one of the most widespread genetic changes caused by human activity, but we still understand little about the origins and spread of resistant alleles in global populations of insects. Here, via microarray analysis of all P450s in Drosophila melanogaster, we show that DDT-R, a gene conferring resistance to DDT, is associated with(More)
Defects in the mammalian Menkes and Wilson copper transporting P-type ATPases cause severe copper homeostasis disease phenotypes in humans. Here, we find that DmATP7, the sole Drosophila orthologue of the Menkes and Wilson genes, is vital for uptake of copper in vivo. Analysis of a DmATP7 loss-of-function allele shows that DmATP7 is essential in(More)
The increased transcription of the Cyp6g1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and consequent resistance to insecticides such as DDT, is a widely cited example of adaptation mediated by cis-regulatory change. A fragment of an Accord transposable element inserted upstream of the Cyp6g1 gene is causally associated with resistance and has spread to high(More)
The Hsp90 chaperone buffers development against a wide range of morphological changes in many organisms and in Drosophila masks the effects of hidden genetic variation. Theory predicts that genetic and nongenetic buffering will share common mechanisms. For example, it is argued that Hsp90 genetic buffering evolved solely as a by-product of environmental(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine one version of the brain reserve hypothesis in a community sample of young-old participants. The authors investigated whether atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were associated with cognitive decline, and whether this relationship was modified by the endowment of greater "reserve" as measured by years of education and(More)
BACKGROUND Mental disorders are more common in young adults than at any other life stage. Despite this, young people have low rates of seeking professional help for mental health problems. Young elite athletes have less positive attitudes toward seeking help than nonathletes and thus may be particularly unlikely to seek help. Interventions aimed at(More)
While there is consistent evidence that initial levels of cognitive ability predict mortality, there is mixed evidence for a relationship between changes in cognition and mortality. There have been few studies that have examined whether the level and slope of cognitive performance is predictive of subsequent mortality from all causes or from cardiovascular(More)
Transposable elements are a major mutation source and powerful agents of adaptive change. Some transposable element insertions in genomes increase to a high frequency because of the selective advantage the mutant phenotype provides. Cyp6g1-mediated insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster is due to the upregulation of the cytochrome P450 gene(More)
As classical phase II detoxification enzymes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been implicated in insecticide resistance and may have evolved in response to toxins in the niche-defining feeding substrates of Drosophila species. We have annotated the GST genes of the 12 Drosophila species with recently sequenced genomes and analyzed their molecular(More)
Predictors of serostatus disclosure were identified among youth living with HIV pre- and post-introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Two cohorts of HIV-positive youth, aged 13-24, in 1994-1996 (n = 351) and 1999-2000 (n = 253) in Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Miami were sampled through medical providers and a variety of(More)