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The studies chronicled in this chapter were chosen largely because they contained data amenable to the quantitative analysis of interferon induction dose-response curves and the IFP activity they represented. The interpretation of the data was predicated on the assumption that a single molecule of dsRNA, when properly introduced into a cell, either as a(More)
The effects of x-irradiation have been quantitatively studied on single cells of a human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) under conditions such that 100 per cent of the unirradiated cells reproduce in isolation to form macroscopic colonies. This technique eliminates complexities due to interactions of members of large cell populations. Survival of single cells(More)
Two methods for simple and rapid plating of single HeLa cells, human, carcinomatous cells, are described. These result in growth and formation of colonies from each single cell. One of these procedures uses irradiated, non-multiplying "feeder" cells to condition the medium. The second requires more gentle handling of the cells, but otherwise is virtually(More)
We have expressed a cDNA for virus-induced chick interferon in Escherichia coli. The product, a 19-kDa protein lacking the signal peptide, was purified to homogeneity from the bacterial inclusion bodies. Proteins in the insoluble fraction of bacterial lysates were dissolved in guanidine hydrochloride and subjected to chromatography on Q-Sepharose and MonoS(More)
Avian influenza virus (AIV) A/turkey/Oregon/71-SEPRL (TK/OR/71-SEPRL) (H7N3) encodes a full-length NS1 protein and is a weak inducer of interferon (IFN). A variant, TK/OR/71-delNS1 (H7N3), produces a truncated NS1 protein and is a strong inducer of IFN. These otherwise genetically related variants differ 20-fold in their capacities to induce IFN in primary(More)
Crude preparations of chicken interferon (ChIFN) from various sources contain both antiviral and macrophage-activating factor (MAF) activity. Previous serological data indicated that unlike mammals, birds might express only a single type of IFN in response to viruses and mitogens that exhibits both activities. We have now expressed a complementary DNA for(More)
Avian diseases, including such viral infection as infectious bursal disease, infectious anemia, and Marek's disease, often cause immunosuppression, leading to more severe infection, problems with secondary infection, and inadequate responses to vaccination. Immunosuppression thus causes serious economic losses in commercial poultry production. To date,(More)
Naturally selected variants of influenza virus encoding truncated NS1 proteins were tested in chickens as candidate live-attenuated influenza vaccines. Their effectiveness correlated with the amount of interferon (IFN) induced in chicken cells. Effective variants induced large amounts of IFN and contained subpopulations with high ratios of(More)