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Developmentally aged chicken embryo cells which hyperproduce interferon (IFN) when induced were used to quantify IFN production and its suppression by eight strains of type A influenza viruses (AIV). Over 90% of the IFN-inducing or IFN induction-suppressing activity of AIV populations resided in noninfectious particles. The IFN-inducer moiety of AIV appears… (More)
Defective interfering (DI) particles of vesicular stomatitis virus which contain covalently linked complementary [+]message and [-]anti-message RNA as a single-stranded ribonucleoprotein complex within the particle, are extremely efficient inducers of interferon. A single particle can induce a quantum yield of interferon. A single molecule of… (More)
A purine analogue, 2-aminopurine, reported to act as an inhibitor of protein kinase, selectively, reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner blocked a very early stage in interferon induction. With chick embryo cells and mouse L cells as hosts, and different viral inducers of interferon, maximal effects of 2-aminopurine were observed during the first 4 h of… (More)
Double-stranded (ds) RNA and many viruses are inducers of interferon (IFN), the latter presumably because they contain, or can form, dsRNA. Concomitant with the induction of IFN in chicken embryo cells was the induction of a novel double-stranded ribonuclease (dsRNase), which was released into the medium and continued to accumulate long after IFN production… (More)
Chicken interferon-alpha administered perorally in drinking water acts on the oropharyngeal mucosal system as an adjuvant that causes chickens to rapidly seroconvert after natural infection by low-pathogenicity Influenza virus. These chickens, termed super sentinels, can serve as sensitive early detectors of clinically inapparent infections.
Mutants of influenza virus that encode C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-truncated mutants) characteristically induce high interferon responses. The dual activity of interferon in blocking virus replication and enhancing the development of adaptive immune responses makes these mutants promising as self-adjuvanting live-attenuated influenza vaccine… (More)