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We report a new method of humanizing antibodies by complementarity determining region (CDR) grafting. Our method differs from others in that we choose human framework sequences from the set of human germline genes based on the structural similarity of the human CDRs to those of the mouse antibody to be humanized. The structural similarity is evaluated by(More)
T cell costimulation by molecules on the antigen presenting cell (APC) is required for optimal T cell proliferation. The B7 molecule on APC binds the T lymphocyte receptor CD28, triggering increased interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and subsequent T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 is a predicted T cell membrane receptor homologous to CD28, which also binds the B7(More)
The specificity of T lymphocyte activation is determined by engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by peptide/major histocompatibility complexes expressed on the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Lacking costimulation by accessory molecules on the APC, T cell proliferation does not occur and unresponsiveness to subsequent antigenic stimulus is induced. The(More)
Humanized Abs are created by combining, at the genetic level, the complementarity-determining regions of a murine mAb with the framework sequences of a human Ab variable domain. This leads to a functional Ab with reduced immunogenic side effects in human therapy. In this study, we report a new approach to humanizing murine mAbs that may reduce(More)
HeLaHF cells are transformation revertants of cervical cancer HeLa cells and have lost anchorage-independent growth potential and tumorigenicity. Activation of tumor suppressor(s) was implicated previously in this transformation reversion. In this study, expression profiling analysis was carried out to identify potential oncogenes that are down-regulated in(More)
PURPOSE CD20-directed therapy with rituximab is effective in many patients with malignant lymphoma or follicular lymphoma. However, relapse frequently occurs within 1 year, and patients become increasingly refractory to retreatment. Our purpose was to produce a compact, single-chain CD20-targeting immunotherapeutic that could offer therapeutic advantages in(More)
Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to alloantigen for 3-8 d in the presence of anti-CD3 antibodies showed no response after restimulation with cells from the original donor but remained capable of responding to third-party donors. Antigen-specific nonresponsiveness was induced by both nonmitogenic and mitogenic anti-CD3 antibodies but not by(More)
To determine IL-2 requirement for activation of suppressor cells, PBMC were primed in one-way MLR in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml anti-IL-2R beta-chain antibody 2A3 (CD25) or control antibody, then irradiated and added as regulators in a fresh MLR. Cells primed in the presence of antibody 2A3 suppressed the proliferative response to fresh autologous(More)
Ribozymes are naturally occurring RNAs with catalytic activities including cis- or trans- cleavage of RNA at predefined sequence sites. This activity has been exploited for specific gene inactivation in cells during the last two decades, and ribozymes have been important functional genomics tools, especially in the pre-RNAi era. It has also been broadly(More)