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Theoretically, an improvement in a language model occurs as the size of the n-grams increases from 3 to 5 or higher. As the n-gram size increases, the number of parameters and calculations, and the storage requirement increase very rapidly if we attempt to store all possible combinations of n-grams. To avoid these problems, the reduced n-grams' approach(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the mouse protection bioassay (MPB) to the Western blot assay (WBA) in detecting antibodies against botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and to correlate the assay results with clinical responses to BTX-A injections. METHODS MPB and WBA assay results were compared in 51 patients (34 nonresponders and 17 responders) who received BTX-A injections,(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare a recently developed immunoprecipitation assay (IPA) to the mouse protection bioassay (MPB), currently considered the "gold standard", for detecting antibodies against botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and to correlate these assay results with clinical responses to BTX-A injections. METHODS MPB and IPA assays were performed on serum samples(More)
A number of different approaches have been applied to the treatment of errors in spoken dialogue systems, including careful design to prevent potential errors, methods for on-line error detection, and error recovery when errors have occurred and have been detected. The approach to error handling presented here is premised on the theory of grounding , in(More)
In this article we describe how Java can be used to implement an object-based, cross-domain, mixed initiative spoken dialogue manager (DM). We describe how dialogue that crosses between several business domains can be modelled as an inheriting and collaborating suite of objects suitable for implementation in Java. We describe the main features of the Java(More)
Advanced spoken dialogue systems incorporate functionalities such as mixed-initiative and cross-domain dialogues. In this paper an object-based approach to cross domain dialogue modelling is described in which service agents representing primary transaction types and support agents representing tasks such as eliciting payment details are selected as(More)
We describe a 78-year-old gentleman who, following bilateral above-knee amputations, developed symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the absent portions of his lower extremities. These symptoms improved with dopamine agonist therapy. In addition, he later developed parkinsonism with prominent rest tremor on metoclopramide. This suggests that this individual(More)
This paper presents some of the main features of a prototype spoken dialogue manager (DM) that has been incorporated into the DARPA Communicator architecture. Developed in Java, the object components that constitute the DM separate generic from domain-specific dialogue behaviour in the interests of maintainability and extensibility. Confirmation strategies(More)