Philip H Marshall

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It is important to establish whether presumed differences among varieties of motor responses are manifested in related differences in performance. In order to determine possible functional distinctions between closed and open kinetic chain tasks, participants' performance in the presence or absence of cognitive distraction on an error-detection task was(More)
Five experiments were conducted to investigate potential structural and functional differences in verbal mediators given by young and elderly adults to CVC material. Experiment 1 found no significant differences in the complexity and flexibility of mediator formation by the two age groups. Experiment 2 replicated these findings using a different sample and(More)
Two preliminary investigations were conducted on the error detection and error correction capabilities on a simple motor task of young, middle-aged and elderly adults. The error detection task assessed the subjects' ability to discriminate which of two test movements was the same as a previously presented criterion movement. The error correction task(More)
The purpose of this study was to extend the findings of age-related changes in force fluctuation of musculature of the lower extremity by examining whether accuracy of movement differs between young, middle-aged, and older adults depending on the angular position of the lower leg when completing a continuous tracking task. Participants were 24 healthy young(More)
The purpose of this study was to establish if osteoarthritis in older adults was associated with ability to accurately and continuously track leg movement in a model of therapy to improve age-related impairments of proprioception, kinesthesia, and coordination of muscles at the knee joint. 24 older adults without osteoarthritis and 24 older adults with(More)
The dual-component distinctiveness and expectation-violation explanations of bizarreness effects were compared to a newly proposed hybrid model in a single experiment investigating the influence of list length and list composition on recall for common and unusual verbal information. Although list composition was determined to be an essential variable, the(More)
OBJECTIVE The major aim of this study was to provide confirmation of the lack of metamemory deficits found in previous research, and we chose reality monitoring as our empirical arena. Reality monitoring is defined as the ability to distinguish between memories for events that have actually occurred and memories for imagined events, with actual events(More)
In three separate studies, independent groups of subjects made either 10 subjectively defined steps of the same length, 10 subjectively defined linear arm movements of the same extent, or 10 successive movements of a single experimenter defined linear arm movement. In each case, the repetitions of these movements became increasingly longer. This is an(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Much has been written regarding age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, general slowing of the nervous system, and deficiencies in inhibition. Few studies, however, have attempted to define how each of these factors may contribute to poorer accuracy of motor performance with aging. The purpose of this study(More)
An assessment of the Hasher and Zacks (1979) conceptualization of the automatic nature of the acquisition of spatial location information was made in the context of manipulations of subjects' intention to learn and mood state. The Velten (1968) mood induction procedure was used to establish depressed and nondepressed subjects. Half of each group was then(More)