Philip Griffin

Learn More
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protease cleavage sites (CS) undergo sequence changes during the development of resistance to several protease inhibitors (PIs). We have analyzed the association of sequence variation at the p7/p1 and p1/p6 CS in conjunction with amprenavir (APV)-specific protease mutations following PI combination therapy(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine changes in HIV-1 susceptibility (genotype and phenotype) during an initial abacavir monotherapy phase followed by the addition of zidovudine and lamivudine. DESIGN Sixty HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects were randomized to receive 100, 300 or 600 mg abacavir twice daily. Subjects completing 24 weeks of randomized(More)
Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Resistance to abacavir was studied with abacavir alone and with abacavir in combination with other nucleoside analogues in cell culture, in virus isolates from zidovudine/lamivudine clinical trials, and in the first dose-escalating 12-week(More)
In common with all retroviruses, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contains duplicated long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences flanking the proviral genome. These LTRs contain identical poly(A) signals, which are both transcribed into RNA. Therefore, to allow efficient viral expression, a mechanism must exist to either restrict promoter-proximal(More)
Assessment of breast volume is an important tool for preoperative planning in various breast surgeries and other applications, such as bra development. Accurate assessment can improve the consistency and quality of surgery outcomes. This study outlines a non-invasive method to measure breast volume using a whole body 3D laser surface anatomy scanner, the(More)
Mutations selected or deselected during passage of human immunodeficiency virus strain HXB2 or resistant variants with tenofovir (TFV), abacavir (ABC), and lamivudine (3TC) differed depending on the drug combination and virus genotype. In the wild-type virus, TFV-ABC and TFV-3TC selected K65R (with reduced susceptibility to all three inhibitors) and then(More)
Immune evasion by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unexplained but may involve the mutation of viral antigens. When cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged CD4-positive cells that were acutely infected with HIV bearing natural variant epitopes in reverse transcriptase, substantial inhibition of specific antiviral lysis was observed. Mutant viruses capable(More)
Many viruses have evolved to exploit cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAG), particularly heparan sulfate, to facilitate their attachment and infection of host cells. Here, the case for the involvement of heparan sulfate GAG in cellular infection by human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) compared with herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) is re-examined.(More)
Despite its widespread use to assess fibrosis, liver biopsy has several important drawbacks, including that is it semi-quantitative, invasive, and limited by sampling and observer variability. Non-invasive serum biomarkers may more accurately reflect the fibrogenetic process. To identify potential biomarkers of fibrosis, we compared serum protein expression(More)
OBJECTIVES Abacavir (ABC) selects for four mutations (K65R, L74V, Y115F and M184V) in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), both in vitro and during monotherapy in vivo. The aim of this analysis was to compare the selection of these and other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mutations by ABC-containing therapies in the presence and(More)