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We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a(More)
We describe our use of a modelling and development process to specify and implement biological simulations that involves the development of several different UML models to capture different perspectives on the system being modelled, in particular the investigation of various emergent properties. We use this process in the case of an auxin canalisation(More)
We describe our use of the CoSMoS process to structure an incremental change of a biological simulation. The domain is auxin transport canalisation. An existing simulator is refactored to handle aspects of 2D and 3D space more efficiently, and enhanced to include more realistically-shaped plant cells. The CoSMoS process supports clear separation of(More)
As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow(More)
Individual or agent-based simulation is an important tool for research involving understanding of complex systems. For a research tool to be useful, its use must be understood, and it must be possible to interpret the results of using the tool in the context of the research. This paper presents the partial validity argument for ongoing work on prostate cell(More)
Regulated transport of the plant hormone auxin is central to many aspects of plant development. Directional transport, mediated by membrane transporters, produces patterns of auxin distribution in tissues that trigger developmental processes, such as vascular patterning or leaf formation. Experimentation has produced many, largely qualitative, data(More)
We describe an approach to building a hybrid multi-scale model, using a Petri net model for the top layer, and object-oriented models at the lower layers, with a rigorous definition of how the layers compose. We apply this approach to building a model of prostate cell division and differentiation, with each model layer describing the processes at a suitable(More)
Recently, Early Warning Signals (EWS) have been developed to predict tipping points in Earth Systems. This discussion highlights the potential to apply EWS to human social and economic systems, which may also undergo similar critical transitions. Social tipping points are particularly difficult to predict, however, and the current formulation of EWS, based(More)
It has become popular to describe the behaviour of certain systems as “undergoing a tipping point”. This is normally used as a description of a system that has rapidly changed from an apparently stable state to a new state with little or no warning. A wide range of complex systems can display tipping point behaviour, from climate systems to populations of(More)