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We have evaluated a 4D ultrasound-based motion tracking system developed for tracking of abdominal organs during therapy. Tracking accuracy and precision were determined using a tissue-mimicking phantom, by comparing tracked motion with known 3D sinusoidal motion. The feasibility of tracking 3D liver motion in vivo was evaluated by acquiring 4D ultrasound(More)
A software program, SpekCalc, is presented for the calculation of x-ray spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes. SpekCalc was designed primarily for use in a medical physics context, for both research and education purposes, but may also be of interest to those working with x-ray tubes in industry. Noteworthy is the particularly wide range of tube(More)
This study was designed to examine the feasibility of utilizing transabdominal ultrasound for real-time monitoring of target motion during a radiotherapy fraction. A clinical Acuson 128/XP ultrasound scanner was used to image various stationary and moving phantoms while an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator radiotherapy treatment machine was operating. The(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate methods used to modulate dose distributions in radiotherapy planning, to determine the fundamental features of these and to establish the attainable dose uniformity. Published modulation methods were categorized, and a simple physical model devised to predict the weight of the wedged beam and the relative dose(More)
The survival of children in the South East Thames region, born between 1970 and 1979 and diagnosed as having some form of cerebral palsy was investigated. Of the 732 children studied, 651 (90%) are still alive, and hence cerebral palsy must be regarded as a condition with which people live rather than a condition of which they die. Survival varies(More)
The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those(More)
For EPID dosimetry, the calibration should ensure that all pixels have a similar response to a given irradiation. A calibration method (MC), using an analytical fit of a Monte Carlo simulated flood field EPID image to correct for the flood field image pixel intensity shape, was proposed. It was compared with the standard flood field calibration (FF), with(More)
OBJECTIVE The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations previously have been recommended to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We compared both estimates with true GFR, measured by the isotopic (51)Cr-EDTA method, in newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A(More)
A method of using electronic portal imaging (EPI) for transit dosimetry is described. In this method, a portal image of the treatment field is first aligned with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) to geometrically relate the computed tomography (CT) scan, used to generate the DRR, with the EPI. Then the EPI is corrected for scatter within the(More)
Highly conformal dose distributions can be generated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated beams (IMBs) are generally determined by inverse-planning techniques designed to maximize conformality. Usually such techniques apply no constraints on the form of the IMBs which may then develop fine-scale modulation. In this paper we present a(More)