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The power of modern computers allows the modeling and simulation of complex biological systems. The last decade has seen the emergence of a growing number of simulations of the immune system. In this article, Franco Celada and Philip Seiden present a model that, they suggest, is rich enough to allow computer experiments to be used as practical adjuncts to(More)
We have constructed a model of the immune system that focuses on the clonotypic cell types and their interactions with other cells, and with antigens and antibodies. We carry out simulations of the humoral immune system based on a generalized cellular automaton implementation of the model. We propose using computer simulation as a tool for doing experiments(More)
By experimenting with a cellular automaton model of the immune system, we have reproduced affinity maturation of the antibody response, a somatic adaptation to a changing environment. The simulation allowed the isolation of a number of variables, e.g. the fraction of repertoire available, the magnitude of the change in affinity with mutation, the mutation(More)
A modern approach to vaccination faces the compound complexity of microorganism behavior and immune response triggering and regulation. Since computational modeling can yield useful guidelines for biological experimentation, we have used IMMSIM(3), a cellular automaton model for simulating humoral- and cell-mediated responses, to explore a wide range of(More)
Rheumatoid factors (RF) associated with arthritic joint erosion are only seen transiently, if at all, in nondiseased individuals. Therefore, a tolerance mechanism must exist that prevents pathologic RF B cells from expressing Abs. Surprisingly, it has been shown that pathologic RF B cells are not tolerized by any previously established tolerance mechanism(More)
Along the lines developed by Celada and Seiden, for simulating an immune system by means of cellular automata, we have constructed a 'thymus' where T cells undergo positive and negative selection. The populations thus 'matured' have been analyzed and their performance has been tested in machina. The key feature of this thymus is to allow chance meeting and(More)
A theory is presented in which much of the structure of spiral galaxies arises from a percolation phase transition that underlies the phenomenon of propagating star formation. According to this view, the appearance of spiral arms is a consequence of the differential rotation of the galaxy and the characteristic divergence of correlation lengths for(More)
The supplanting of the 1° IgM response by the 2° isotype-switched response is one of the best known phenomena of immune system dynamics. Given that the conditions determining which B cells will switch isotype and which ones will not are intrinsic to the entities of the immune system, it should be possible to predict the effects that the small-scale (e.g.(More)
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