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Anandamide is an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors that induces pharmacological responses in animals similar to those of cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Typical pharmacological effects of cannabinoids include disruption of pain, memory formation, and motor coordination, systems that all depend on NMDA receptor mediated(More)
Hypoxia-induced suppression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) cortical neurons may be critical for surviving months of anoxic dormancy. We report that NMDARs are silenced by at least three different mechanisms operating at different times during anoxia. In pyramidal neurons from cerebrocortex, 1-8 min anoxia suppressed(More)
In order to review the current status of the potential relationship between anesthesia and Alzheimer's disease, a group of scientists recently met in Philadelphia for a full day of presentations and discussions. This special article represents a consensus view on the possible link between Alzheimer's disease and anesthesia and the steps required to test(More)
The ability of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles to survive extremes of oxygen availability derives from a core triad of adaptations: profound metabolic suppression, tolerance of ionic and pH disturbances, and mechanisms for avoiding free-radical injury during reoxygenation. For long-term anoxic survival, enhanced storage of glycogen in critical tissues is(More)
BACKGROUND Most in vitro neuroprotection studies with isoflurane have involved cells obtained during the embryonic or early postnatal period. However, in mature rodents, isoflurane neuroprotection does not persist. The authors determined whether neuroprotection of hippocampal slices with isoflurane decreases with aging and is due to decreased intracellular(More)
Exposure of neurons to a non-lethal hypoxic stress greatly reduces cell death during subsequent severe ischemia (hypoxic preconditioning, HPC). In organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus, we demonstrate that HPC requires inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggered by increased cytosolic NAD(P)H.(More)
The damage caused to mammalian neurons during ischaemic events in the brain (e.g. following a stroke), is an area of major interest to neuroscientists. The neurons of hypoxia-tolerant vertebrates offer unique models for identifying new strategies to enhance the survival of hypoxia-vulnerable neurons. In this review, we describe recent advances in our(More)
BACKGROUND Roughly, 10% of elderly patients develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction. General anesthesia impairs spatial memory in aged rats, but the mechanism is not known. Hippocampal neurogenesis affects spatial learning and memory in rats, and isoflurane affects neurogenesis in neonatal and young adult rats. We tested the hypothesis that isoflurane(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral oximetry is a noninvasive optical technology that measures frontal cortex blood hemoglobin-oxygen saturation. Commercially available cerebral oximeters have not been evaluated independently. Unlike pulse oximeters, there are currently no Food and Drug Administration standards for performance or accuracy. We tested the hypothesis that(More)
A hallmark of anoxia tolerance in western painted turtles is relative constancy of tissue adenylate concentrations during periods of oxygen limitation. During anoxia heart and brain intracellular compartments become more acidic and cellular energy demands are met by anaerobic glycolysis. Because changes in adenylates and pH during anoxic stress could(More)