Philip E. Bickler

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The ability of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles to survive extremes of oxygen availability derives from a core triad of adaptations: profound metabolic suppression, tolerance of ionic and pH disturbances, and mechanisms for avoiding free-radical injury during reoxygenation. For long-term anoxic survival, enhanced storage of glycogen in critical tissues is(More)
Hypoxia-induced suppression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) cortical neurons may be critical for surviving months of anoxic dormancy. We report that NMDARs are silenced by at least three different mechanisms operating at different times during anoxia. In pyramidal neurons from cerebrocortex, 1-8 min anoxia suppressed(More)
Survival of brain anoxia during months of winter dormancy by the Western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, may rely on inactivation of neuronal ion channels. During 2 h of anoxia, Ca2+ influx via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor decreases 30-40%, but it is not known if prolonged anoxic dormancy is associated with even more(More)
Anandamide is an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors that induces pharmacological responses in animals similar to those of cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Typical pharmacological effects of cannabinoids include disruption of pain, memory formation, and motor coordination, systems that all depend on NMDA receptor mediated(More)
Down-regulation of ion channel activity ('channel arrest'), which aids in preserving critical ion gradients in concert with greatly diminished energy production, is one important strategy by which anoxia-tolerant neurons adapt to O2 shortage. Channel arrest results in the elimination of action potentials and neurotransmission and also decreases the need for(More)
Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic ventilatory depression (HVD) were measured in six subjects before, during, and after 12 days at 3,810-m altitude (barometric pressure approximately 488 Torr) with and without 15 min of preoxygenation. HVR was tested by 5-min isocapnic steps to 75% arterial O2 saturation measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) at an(More)
An effective treatment for brain ischemia is a pressing medical need. Research on brain ischemia has largely focused on understanding the mechanisms of neuron death as a way of identifying targets for therapy. An attractive alternative approach is to identify the survival strategies of hypoxia-tolerant neurons. The adaptation of vertebrate neurons to(More)
A hallmark of anoxia tolerance in western painted turtles is relative constancy of tissue adenylate concentrations during periods of oxygen limitation. During anoxia heart and brain intracellular compartments become more acidic and cellular energy demands are met by anaerobic glycolysis. Because changes in adenylates and pH during anoxic stress could(More)
Neonatal rats survive and avoid brain injury during periods of anoxia 25 times longer than adults. We hypothesized that oxygen activates and hypoxia suppresses NMDA receptor (NMDAR) responses in neonatal rat neurons, explaining the innate hypoxia tolerance of these cells. In CA1 neurons isolated from neonatal rat hippocampus (mean postnatal age [P] 5.8(More)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), an intermediate of glucose metabolism, is neuroprotective in brain hypoxia or ischemia. Because the mechanisms for this protection are not clear, we examined the effects of FBP on two important events in brain ischemia, i.e., loss of ATP and release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate release from(More)