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Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
Recent studies have initiated a paradigm shift in the understanding of the function of heat shock proteins (HSP). It is now clear that HSP can and do exit mammalian cells, interact with cells of the immune system, and exert immunoregulatory effects. We recently demonstrated that exogenously added HSP70 possesses potent cytokine activity, with the ability to(More)
The C/EBP family of proteins represents an important group of bZIP transcription factors that are key to the regulation of essential functions such as cell cycle, hematopoiesis, skeletal development, and host immune responses. They are also intimately associated with tumorigenesis and viral disease. These proteins are regulated at multiple levels, including(More)
The process through which multipotential hematopoietic cells commit to distinct lineages involves the induction of specific transcription factors. PU.1 (also known as Spi-1) and GATA-1 are transcription factors essential for the development of myeloid and erythroid lineages, respectively. Overexpression of PU.1 and GATA-1 can block differentiation in(More)
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a protein with several biological activities regulating host defense and immune responses. We report here the isolation of human IL-1 cDNA. It encodes a precursor polypeptide of 269 amino acids (30,747 Mr). mRNA isolated by hybridization to this cDNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free system, yielding immunoprecipitable IL-1.(More)
Heat shock factor 1 activates the promoters of heat shock genes at elevated temperatures through its interaction with heat shock elements. We have examined a new role for heat shock factor 1 in the repression of the prointerleukin 1beta gene in human monocytes responding to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Both exposure to elevated temperatures and(More)
gp130-linked cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulate the formation of tyrosine-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (P-STAT3), which activates many genes, including the STAT3 gene itself. The resulting increase in the concentration of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) drives a second wave of expression of genes such as(More)
Complementary DNA coding for human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1), pI 7 form, was expressed in Escherichia coli. During purification, IL-1 activity on murine T cells was associated with the recombinant protein. Homogeneous human recombinant IL-1 (hrIL-1) was tested in several assays to demonstrate the immunological and inflammatory properties attributed to(More)
Interleukins (IL) 1 and 6 are important cytokines that function via the activation, respectively, of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT3. We have observed that a specific type of kappa B DNA sequence motif supports both NF-kappaB p65 homodimer binding and cooperativity with non-tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3. This activity, in contrast to that(More)
Monocytes and tissue macrophages play important roles in host defense against virus infections and, in the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and HIV, may also be the reservoir for latent disease. Because these cells can also rapidly respond to most infections by secretion of inflammatory mediators, we were interested in determining if HCMV infection(More)