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Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
We present a computer-aided method for determining nucleic acid secondary structure. The method utilizes a program which has the capability to filter matrix diagonal data on the basis of diagonal length, stabilization energy, and chemical and enzymatic data. The program also allows the user to assign selected regions of the structure as uniquely(More)
Transcription factor (TF) proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites.(More)
MOTIVATION Mutual information can be used to explore covarying positions in biological sequences. In the past, it has been successfully used to infer RNA secondary structure conformations from multiple sequence alignments. In this study, we show that the same principles allow the discovery of transcription factor amino acids that are coevolving with(More)
Interleukin-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor α play related, but distinct, roles in immunity and disease. Our study revealed major mechanistic distinctions in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-dependent induction for the rapidly expressed genes (IL1B and TNF) coding for these two cytokines. Prior to induction, TNF exhibited pre-bound TATA Binding Protein(More)
A brief survey of computer algorithms that have been developed to generate predictions of the secondary structures of RNA molecules is presented. Two particular methods are described in some detail. The first utilizes a thermodynamic energy minimization algorithm that takes into account the likelihood that short-range folding tends to be favored over(More)
KEY WORDS heat shock proteins; cytokines; heat shock factor t has become clear in recent years that, heat shock proteins (hsps) play a major role in the acute in-flammatory response and inflammatory diseases. 1,z Heat shock proteins were originally characterized as a highly conserved group of proteins involved in the response of cellular organisms to(More)
The contribution of osteoclasts to the process of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis has recently been demonstrated. Studies in osteoclast biology have led to the identification of factors responsible for the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, the most important of which is the receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand/osteoclast differentiation(More)
An LPS-stimulated, human monocyte cDNA library was screened for stimulation-specific clones. One clone (pcD-1214) contained a 1.9-kb pair insert that hybridized to a 2,000-nucleotide mRNA expressed by peripheral blood monocytes, the histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937, and umbilical cord endothelial cells. The 415-amino-acid precursor polypeptide predicted(More)