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Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
Recent studies have initiated a paradigm shift in the understanding of the function of heat shock proteins (HSP). It is now clear that HSP can and do exit mammalian cells, interact with cells of the immune system, and exert immunoregulatory effects. We recently demonstrated that exogenously added HSP70 possesses potent cytokine activity, with the ability to(More)
The process through which multipotential hematopoietic cells commit to distinct lineages involves the induction of specific transcription factors. PU.1 (also known as Spi-1) and GATA-1 are transcription factors essential for the development of myeloid and erythroid lineages, respectively. Overexpression of PU.1 and GATA-1 can block differentiation in(More)
The C/EBP family of proteins represents an important group of bZIP transcription factors that are key to the regulation of essential functions such as cell cycle, hematopoiesis, skeletal development, and host immune responses. They are also intimately associated with tumorigenesis and viral disease. These proteins are regulated at multiple levels, including(More)
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a protein with several biological activities regulating host defense and immune responses. We report here the isolation of human IL-1 cDNA. It encodes a precursor polypeptide of 269 amino acids (30,747 Mr). mRNA isolated by hybridization to this cDNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free system, yielding immunoprecipitable IL-1.(More)
Heat shock factor 1 activates the promoters of heat shock genes at elevated temperatures through its interaction with heat shock elements. We have examined a new role for heat shock factor 1 in the repression of the prointerleukin 1beta gene in human monocytes responding to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Both exposure to elevated temperatures and(More)
The contribution of osteoclasts to the process of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis has recently been demonstrated. Studies in osteoclast biology have led to the identification of factors responsible for the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, the most important of which is the receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand/osteoclast differentiation(More)
Complementary DNA coding for human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1), pI 7 form, was expressed in Escherichia coli. During purification, IL-1 activity on murine T cells was associated with the recombinant protein. Homogeneous human recombinant IL-1 (hrIL-1) was tested in several assays to demonstrate the immunological and inflammatory properties attributed to(More)
We have isolated the human prointerleukin 1 (proIL-1) beta gene from leukocyte and fetal liver libraries. The nucleotide sequence and its gene organization reveals that the proIL-1 beta gene is composed of seven exons with a primary transcription product length of 7,008 nucleotides. The exon sequence agrees well with that of the human proIL-1 beta cDNA.(More)
gp130-linked cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulate the formation of tyrosine-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (P-STAT3), which activates many genes, including the STAT3 gene itself. The resulting increase in the concentration of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) drives a second wave of expression of genes such as(More)