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Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
Transcription factor (TF) proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites.(More)
MOTIVATION Mutual information can be used to explore covarying positions in biological sequences. In the past, it has been successfully used to infer RNA secondary structure conformations from multiple sequence alignments. In this study, we show that the same principles allow the discovery of transcription factor amino acids that are coevolving with(More)
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is produced primarily by stimulated monocytes, suggesting that the IL1B gene, which codes for this protein, depends upon at least one cell-type-specific factor. Our previous characterization of the IL1B promoter indicated that the region between -131 and +12 is sufficient to direct cell-type-specific expression of a reporter(More)
Interleukin-1b and Tumor Necrosis Factor a play related, but distinct, roles in immunity and disease. Our study revealed major mechanistic distinctions in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-dependent induction for the rapidly expressed genes (IL1B and TNF) coding for these two cytokines. Prior to induction, TNF exhibited pre-bound TATA Binding Protein(More)
We present a computer-aided method for determining nucleic acid secondary structure. The method utilizes a program which has the capability to filter matrix diagonal data on the basis of diagonal length, stabilization energy, and chemical and enzymatic data. The program also allows the user to assign selected regions of the structure as uniquely(More)
A brief survey of computer algorithms that have been developed to generate predictions of the secondary structures of RNA molecules is presented. Two particular methods are described in some detail. The first utilizes a thermodynamic energy minimization algorithm that takes into account the likelihood that short-range folding tends to be favored over(More)
We have isolated the human prointerleukin 1 (proIL-1) beta gene from leukocyte and fetal liver libraries. The nucleotide sequence and its gene organization reveals that the proIL-1 beta gene is composed of seven exons with a primary transcription product length of 7,008 nucleotides. The exon sequence agrees well with that of the human proIL-1 beta cDNA.(More)
Aberrant activation of EGFR in human cancers promotes tumorigenesis through stimulation of AKT signaling. Here, we determined that the discoidina neuropilin-like membrane protein DCBLD2 is upregulated in clinical specimens of glioblastomas and head and neck cancers (HNCs) and is required for EGFR-stimulated tumorigenesis. In multiple cancer cell lines, EGFR(More)
The contribution of osteoclasts to the process of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis has recently been demonstrated. Studies in osteoclast biology have led to the identification of factors responsible for the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, the most important of which is the receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand/osteoclast differentiation(More)