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Fermentation products can chaotropically disorder macromolecular systems and induce oxidative stress, thus inhibiting biofuel production. Recently, the chaotropic activities of ethanol, butanol and vanillin have been quantified (5.93, 37.4, 174kJ kg(-1)m(-1) respectively). Use of low temperatures and/or stabilizing (kosmotropic) substances, and other(More)
The concept of "water structure" has been invoked to explain all manner of aqueous phenomena. Here we look at the origins of this tendency to understand solute hydration in terms of structural changes in bulk water, and consider the validity of one particular example: the classification of small solutes as chaotropic or kosmotropic, and the putative(More)
The eukaryotic cap-binding complex eIF4F is an essential component of the translational machinery. Recognition of the mRNA cap structure through its subunit eIF4E is a requirement for the recruitment of other translation initiation factors to the mRNA 5'-end and thereby for the attachment of the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In this study, we have investigated(More)
To support effective process development there is a requirement for rapid analytical methods that can identify and quantitate adenoviral particles throughout the manufacturing process, from cellular lysate through to purified adenovirus. An anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) particles has(More)
the mechanisms of this organic-to-inorganic exciton transfer. Transforming the triplet excitons produced via SF into useful photocurrent remains an open challenge, but the results of these two papers represent an important step along the way. The hybrid organic–QD materials studied by these two groups represent an exciting frontier in optical materials that(More)