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In the three decades since pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were first described they have been derived and maintained by using various empirical combinations of feeder cells, conditioned media, cytokines, growth factors, hormones, fetal calf serum, and serum extracts. Consequently ES-cell self-renewal is generally considered to be dependent on(More)
The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70-80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB(More)
Background: Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as c-Akt, is activated rapidly when mammalian cells are stimulated with insulin and growth factors, and much of the current interest in this enzyme stems from the observation that it lies 'downstream' of phosphoinositide 3-kinase on intracellular signalling pathways. We recently showed that insulin or(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) was initially described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, but is now known to regulate a diverse array of cell functions. The study of the substrate specificity and regulation of GSK3 activity has been important in the quest for therapeutic intervention.
The geological record of protists begins well before the Ediacaran and Cambrian diversification of animals, but the antiquity of that history, its reliability as a chronicle of evolution and the causal inferences that can be drawn from it remain subjects of debate. Well-preserved protists are known from a relatively small number of Proterozoic formations,(More)
We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these,(More)
BACKGROUND Protein kinase B (PKB), and the p70 and p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (p70 S6 kinase and p90 Rsk, respectively), are activated by phosphorylation of two residues, one in the 'T-loop' of the kinase domain and, the other, in the hydrophobic motif carboxy terminal to the kinase domain. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) activates(More)
Hormones and growth factors induce the activation of a number of protein kinases that belong to the AGC subfamily, including isoforms of PKA, protein kinase B (also known as Akt), PKC, S6K p70 (ribosomal S6 kinase), RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) and MSK (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase), which then mediate many of the physiological processes(More)
Elucidation of the various enzymatic reactions of the KrebsHenseleit ornithine-urea cycle (1) stems from several laboratories (l-13), whose primary aims were the isolation, purification, and study of the requirements and mechanism of action of the several enzymes. The present study was undertaken to provide a systematic scheme of analysis for the(More)
Protein phosphorylation regulates most aspects of cell life, whereas abnormal phosphorylation is a cause or consequence of disease. A growing interest in developing orally active protein-kinase inhibitors has recently culminated in the approval of the first of these drugs for clinical use. Protein kinases have now become the second most important group of(More)