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The proteasomal ATPase ring, comprising Rpt1-Rpt6, associates with the heptameric α-ring of the proteasome core particle (CP) in the mature proteasome, with the Rpt carboxy-terminal tails inserting into pockets of the α-ring. Rpt ring assembly is mediated by four chaperones, each binding a distinct Rpt subunit. Here we report that the base subassembly of(More)
To identify previously unknown small molecules that inhibit cell cycle machinery, we performed a chemical genetic screen in Xenopus extracts. One class of inhibitors, termed ubistatins, blocked cell cycle progression by inhibiting cyclin B proteolysis and inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated Sic1 by purified proteasomes. Ubistatins blocked the binding of(More)
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was converted from a protein with a short intracellular half-life in mammalian cells to a stable protein by truncating 37 residues at its carboxyl terminus. Cells expressing wild-type protein lost ODC activity with a half-life of approximately 1 hour. Cells expressing the truncated protein, however, retained full activity for(More)
Isoproterenol, a stimulator of adenylate cyclase, was used to select a stable variant clone of mouse lymphosarcoma cells deficient in the enzyme. The inability of four different stimulators to activate cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis in the variant, in contrast to its wild-type parent, implies that in normal cells one type of adenylate cyclase(More)
Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) produces phosphodiesterase induction, growth arrest, and cytolysis in S49 lymphoma cells. The striking parallelism between protein kinase activity that is dependent on cytosol cyclic AMP and cellular responses to dibutyryl cyclic AMP in wild-type cells and three classes of clones resistant to(More)
In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyze the responses of cultured S49 mouse lymphoma cells to incubation with analogs or inducers of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Putative phosphorylations were detected by charge alterations in proteins labeled with 35S--methionine and, in some cases, confirmed by labeling with 32P--phosphate. We assessed(More)
Proteasome ATPases unravel folded proteins. Introducing a sequence containing only glycine and alanine residues (GAr) into substrates can impair their digestion. We previously proposed that a GAr interferes with the unfolding capacity of the proteasome, leading to partial degradation of products. Here we tested that idea in several ways. Stabilizing or(More)
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to visualize the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from cultured S49 mouse lymphoma cells and to demonstrate its in vivo phosphorylation. Regulatory subunits from mutant cells with altered kinases exhibit at least two patterns of charge shifts consistent with substitutions of(More)
Kinase-negative mutants of S49 mouse lymphoma cells are pleiotropically negative for all known cAMP-mediated responses of S49 cells and yield cell extracts which are deficient in cAMP binding activity and devoid of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. In hybrids between kinase-negative and wild-type cells, the mutant phenotype is dominant: the tetraploid(More)
To determine the effect of cell cycle position on protein synthesis, synchronized cell populations were metabolically labeled and the synthesis of the basic proteins, including histones, was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Exponentially growing S49 mouse lymphoma or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were separated into G1 and S phase(More)