Philip Chi Lip Kwok

Learn More
To investigate the influence of storage relative humidity (RH) on the aerosolisation efficiency and tribo-electrification of carrier based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations using the next generation impactor (NGI) in vitro methodology and the electrostatic low pressure impactor (ELPI). Micronised salbutamol (d 0.5 1.48 ± 0.03 μm) was blended with 63–90(More)
After the clinical insertion of a bone biomaterial, the surrounding osteoblasts would migrate and attach to the implant surface and foster a microenvironment that largely determines the differentiation fate of the comigrated mesenchymal stem cells. Whether the fostered microenvironment is suitable for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is(More)
Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist and has been used as a general anesthetic, sedative and analgesic for about 30 years. The aim of this paper is to review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine, evaluate physiological factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine, and summarize the pharmacodynamics of(More)
Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease, but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the(More)
This study aimed to characterize inherent charge generated by micron-sized drug-only formulations of amorphous and crystalline salbutamol sulfate (SS). Amorphous SS was produced by spray-drying whilst crystalline SS was produced by conditioning spray-dried SS with supercritical CO2 and menthol. Electrostatic charge of the powders was characterized in two(More)
Aerosols emitted from metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are generally electrically charged and bipolar in nature. Although a spacer can effectively dampen the charge magnitude of aerosols, the electrostatic interactions between the positively and negatively charged particles and the spacer have not yet been characterized separately. The Bipolar Charge Analyzer(More)
Lactose dry powder inhaler (DPI) carriers, constructed of smaller sub units (composite carriers), were evaluated to assess their potential for minimising drug–carrier adhesion, variability in drug–carrier forces and influence on drug aerosol performance from carrier–drug blends. Lactose carrier particles were prepared by fusing sub units of lactose (either(More)
This study aims to improve the dissolution of inhalable cyclosporine A nanoparticles by formulating the drug with mannitol as a hydrophilic nano-matrix former. The effect of mannitol content on the aerosol performance of the nano-matrix particles was also examined. Cyclosporine A nanosuspensions were produced by anti-solvent precipitation using a(More)
To study if electrostatic charge initially present in mannitol powder plays a role in the generation of aerosols, mannitol was unipolarly charged to varying magnitudes by tumbling the powder inside containers of different materials. The resulting charge in the powder was consistent with predictions from the triboelectric charging theories, based on the work(More)
This review focuses on bottom-up processes such as precipitation (or crystallisation) and single droplet evaporation to produce nanoparticles containing largely pure therapeutics for pharmaceutical applications. Suitable precipitation techniques involve the use of high-gravity, confined impinging liquid jet mixing, multi-inlet vortex mixing, supercritical(More)