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The effect of type 1 diabetes on bone healing and bone formation in standardized craniotomy defects created in BALB/cByJ mice was determined. The hypothesis that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to diminished bone healing in diabetes was evaluated by assessing for the presence of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) by(More)
Lysyl oxidase catalyzes the final enzymatic step required for collagen and elastin cross-linking in extracellular matrix biosynthesis. Pro-lysyl oxidase is processed by procollagen C-proteinase activity, which also removes the C-propeptides of procollagens I-III. The Bmp1 gene encodes two procollagen C-proteinases: bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) and(More)
We have previously shown that diabetes significantly enhances apoptosis of osteoblastic cells in vivo and that the enhanced apoptosis contributes to diabetes impaired new bone formation. A potential mechanism is enhanced apoptosis stimulated by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). To investigate this further, an advanced glycation product, carboxymethyl(More)
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes cross-linking of elastin and collagen, which is essential for the structural integrity and function of bone tissue. The present study examined the role of Lox gene deficiency for the osteoblast phenotype in primary calvarial osteoblasts from E18.5 Lox knockout (Lox ( -/- )) and wild type (wt) (C57BL/6) mice. Next to Lox gene(More)
Diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, is a looming health issue with many ramifications. Because diabetes alters the cellular microenvironment in many different types of tissues, it causes myriad untoward effects, collectively referred to as 'diabetic complications'. Two cellular processes affected by diabetes are inflammation and apoptosis. This review(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are elevated in aged and diabetic individuals and are associated with pathological changes associated with both. Previously we demonstrated that the AGE N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML)-collagen induced fibroblast apoptosis through the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial pathways and the global induction of(More)
beta-Aminopropionitrile (BAPN) is a potent irreversible inhibitor of lysyl oxidase, the enzyme which initiates cross-linkage formation in elastin and collagen. The initial interaction of BAPN with aortic lysyl oxidase is competitive with elastin or alkyl amine substrates. Irreversible inhibition develops in a time- and temperature-dependent fashion upon(More)
The gene encoding lysyl oxidase (LOX) was identified as the ras recision gene (rrg), with the ability to revert Ras-mediated transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Mutations in RAS genes have been found in approximately 25% of lung cancers and in 85% of pancreatic cancers. In microarray analysis, these cancers were found to display reduced LOX gene(More)
Lysyl oxidase is the extracellular enzyme that catalyzes oxidative deamination of peptidyl-lysine residues in elastin precursors, and lysine and hydroxylysine residues in collagen precursors to form peptidyl-aldehydes. These aldehydes then spontaneously condense to crosslink collagen and elastin and thereby allow the formation of a mature and functional(More)
OBJECTIVE In diabetes, retinal vascular basement membrane (BM) undergoes significant thickening and compromises vessel function including increased vascular permeability, a prominent lesion of early diabetic retinopathy. In this study we determined whether altered expression and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a cross-linking enzyme, may compromise(More)