Philip C Calder

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Inflammation is part of the normal host response to infection and injury. However, excessive or inappropriate inflammation contributes to a range of acute and chronic human diseases and is characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and other oxidized(More)
Nutritional support in the intensive care setting represents a challenge but it is fortunate that its delivery and monitoring can be followed closely. Enteral feeding guidelines have shown the evidence in favor of early delivery and the efficacy of use of the gastrointestinal tract. Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents an alternative or additional approach(More)
Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of(More)
The principal biological role of α-linolenic acid (αLNA; 18:3n-3) appears to be as a precursor for the synthesis of longer chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Increasing αLNA intake for a period of weeks to months results in an increase in the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in plasma lipids, in erythrocytes, leukocytes,(More)
Low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many(More)
The principal biological role of alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLNA; 18:3n-3) appears to be as a precursor for the synthesis of longer chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Increasing alphaLNA intake for a period of weeks to months results in an increase in the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in plasma lipids, in erythrocytes,(More)
Greatly increasing the amounts of flaxseed oil [rich in α-linolenic acid (ALNA)] or fish oil (FO); [rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in the diet can decrease inflammatory cell functions and so might impair host defense. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with moderate levels(More)
The immune system is involved in host defense against infectious agents, tumor cells, and environmental insults. Inflammation is an important component of the early immunologic response. Inappropriate or dysfunctional immune responses underlie acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The n−6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor of prostaglandins,(More)
(n-3) PUFA are a family of biologically active fatty acids. The simplest member of this family, α-linolenic acid, can be converted to the more biologically active very long-chain (n-3) PUFA EPA and DHA; this process occurs by a series of desaturation and elongation reactions, with stearidonic acid being an intermediate in the pathway. Biological activity of(More)