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Membrane proteins function in a polarized ionic environment with sodium-rich extracellular and potassium-rich intracellular solutions. Glutamate receptors that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain show unusual sensitivity to external ions, resulting in an apparent requirement for sodium in order for glutamate to activate kainate receptors.(More)
Ionotropic GABA receptors are abundant in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, where they mediate rapid, mostly inhibitory synaptic transmission. A GABA-gated chloride channel subunit from Drosophila melanogaster [Resistant to Dieldrin (RDL)] has been cloned, functionally expressed, and found to exhibit many aspects of the pharmacology of(More)
The alpha4beta2 subtype is the most abundant nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the brain and possesses the high-affinity binding site for nicotine. The alpha4 and beta2 nAChR subunits assemble into two alternate stoichiometries, (alpha4)(2)(beta2)(3) and (alpha4)(3)(beta2)(2), which differ in their functional properties and sensitivity to chronic(More)
The ligand-binding domain (LBD) from the ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (GluR2) has been shown to adopt a range of ligand-dependent conformational states. These states have been described in terms of the rotation required to fit subdomain (lobe) 2 following superposition of subdomain (lobe) 1. The LBD has a closed-cleft conformation for full(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α4 and β2 subunits assemble in two alternate stoichiometries to produce (α4β2)(2)α4 and (α4β2)(2)β2, which display different agonist sensitivities. Functionally relevant agonist binding sites are thought to be located at α4(+)/β2(-) subunit interfaces, but because these interfaces are present in both receptor(More)
The acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) is homologous to the ligand-binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and other members of the Cys-loop family of neurotransmitter receptors. The high-resolution X-ray structures of AChBP mean it has been used as a model from which to understand agonist and antagonist binding to nAChRs. We(More)
The structure of the bacterial potassium channel, KcsA, corresponds to the channel in a closed state. Two lines of evidence suggest that the channel must widen its intracellular mouth when in an open state: 1) internal block by a series of tetraalkylammonium ions and 2) spin labeling experiments. Thus it is known that the protein moves in this region, but(More)
GluR0 is a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian glutamate receptors that forms glutamate-activated, potassium-selective ion channels. The topology of its transmembrane (TM) domain is similar to that of simple potassium channels such as KcsA. Two plausible alignments of the sequence of the TM domain of GluR0 with KcsA are possible, differing in the region of(More)
Ions play a modulatory role in many proteins. Kainate receptors, members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, require both monovalent anions and cations in the extracellular milieu for normal channel activity. Molecular dynamics simulations and extensive relative binding free energy calculations using thermodynamic integration were performed to(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are important for fast synaptic cholinergic transmission. They are targets of drugs/chemicals for human and animal health as well as for pest control. With the advent of genome sequencing, entire nAChR gene families have now been described for vertebrates and invertebrates. Mostly, these are extensive with a large(More)