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BACKGROUND Raised blood pressure is common in acute stroke, and is associated with an increased risk of poor outcomes. We aimed to examine whether careful blood-pressure lowering treatment with the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan is beneficial in patients with acute stroke and raised blood pressure. METHODS Participants in this randomised,(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent stroke is a frequent, disabling event after ischemic stroke. This study compared the efficacy and safety of two antiplatelet regimens--aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole (ASA-ERDP) versus clopidogrel. METHODS In this double-blind, 2-by-2 factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive 25 mg of aspirin plus 200 mg of(More)
Small vessel disease encompasses lacunar stroke, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes and microbleeds. It causes a quarter of all ischemic strokes, is the commonest cause of vascular dementia, and the cause is incompletely understood. Vascular prophylaxis, as appropriate for large artery disease and cardioembolism, includes antithrombotics, and blood(More)
The consolidation of scientific knowledge proceeds through the interpretation and then distillation of data presented in research reports, first in review articles and then in textbooks and undergraduate courses, until truths become accepted as such both amongst "experts" and in the public understanding. Where data are collected but remain unpublished, they(More)
Background and Purpose—An early and reliable prognosis for recovery in stroke patients is important for initiation of individual treatment and for informing patients and relatives. We recently developed and validated models for predicting survival and functional independence within 3 months after acute stroke, based on age and the National Institutes of(More)
Gender differences in outcome following cerebral ischemia have frequently been observed and attributed to the actions of steroid hormones. Progesterone has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties following transient ischemia, with respect to decreasing lesion volume and improving functional recovery. The present study was designed to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of ischaemic stroke with neuroprotective drugs has been unsuccessful, and whether these compounds can be used to reduce disability after recurrent stroke is unknown. The putative neuroprotective effects of antiplatelet compounds and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan were investigated in the Prevention Regimen for(More)
Growth factors possess neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in vitro, but few have been extensively studied in vivo after stroke. In the present study, we investigated the potential functional benefits of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration after focal cerebral ischemia. Male mice underwent 60-minute middle cerebral artery(More)
Steroid sex hormones are potential neuroprotective candidates following CNS injury. All clinical trials to date have examined the effects of oestrogen alone or oestrogen-progestin combination therapy. Experimental studies have suggested that progesterone, in its own right, is a potential neuroprotective agent following acute cerebral injury. We performed a(More)
Gene knockout studies in acute experimental stroke suggest that nitric oxide (NO) produced by the neuronal or inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, iNOS) is detrimental, whilst that derived from the endothelial isoform (eNOS) is beneficial. However, experimental studies with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (NOS inhibitors) have given(More)