Philip Alexander Efron

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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of immature myeloid cells whose numbers dramatically increase in chronic and acute inflammatory diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disease, trauma, burns and sepsis. Studied originally in cancer, these cells are potently immunosuppressive, particularly in their ability to suppress(More)
Surgical intensive care unit (ICU) stay of longer than 10 days is often described by the experienced intensivist as a "complicated clinical course" and is frequently attributed to persistent immune dysfunction. "Systemic inflammatory response syndrome" (SIRS) followed by "compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome" (CARS) is a conceptual framework to(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in critical illness and are depleted in spleens from septic patients and mice. To date, few studies have characterized the systemic effect of sepsis on DC populations in lymphoid tissues. We analyzed the phenotype of DCs and Th cells present in the local (mesenteric) and distant (inguinal and popliteal) lymph nodes of(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), including natural CD4+CD25+ Tregs and inducible IL-10 producing T regulatory type 1 (T(R)1) cells, maintain tolerance and inhibit autoimmunity. Recently, increased percentages of Tregs have been observed in the blood of septic patients, and ex vivo-activated Tregs were shown to prevent polymicrobial sepsis mortality. Whether(More)
INTRODUCTION Monocytes from septic patients have a reduced capacity to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined whether the same response occurred after surgical injury, and whether this reduced activity was associated with differential monocyte toll-like receptor (TLR) expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized in wounds, but its exact role and cellular source are not known. Wound fibroblasts (WF) are phenotypically characterized by increased collagen synthesis and contractility. We hypothesized that WF may be also phenotypically altered during wound healing to synthesize NO. WF were isolated from polyvinyl alcohol sponges(More)
Microbes activate pattern recognition receptors to initiate adaptive immunity. T cells affect early innate inflammatory responses to viral infection, but both activation and suppression have been demonstrated. We identify a novel role for B cells in the early innate immune response during bacterial sepsis. We demonstrate that Rag1(-/-) mice display(More)
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to microbial infection, induces changes in both innate and adaptive immunity that presumably lead to increased susceptibility to secondary infections, multiorgan failure, and death. Using a model of murine polymicrobial sepsis whose severity approximates human sepsis, we examined outcomes and defined requirements(More)
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 26% of trauma patients and is associated with increased mortality and risk for nosocomial infections (NCIs). We compared serial plasma cytokine levels in patients with posttraumatic AKI to determine whether the early cytokine changes are associated with the occurrence of AKI and NCI. METHODS We performed a(More)
Time-course microarray experiments are capable of capturing dynamic gene expression profiles. It is important to study how these dynamic profiles depend on the multiple factors that characterize the experimental condition under which the time course is observed. Analytic methods are needed to simultaneously handle the time course and factorial structure in(More)