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Neutrophils are essential for successful host eradication of bacterial pathogens and for survival to polymicrobial sepsis. During inflammation, the bone marrow provides a large reserve of neutrophils that are released into the peripheral circulation where they traverse to sites of infection. Although neutrophils are essential for survival, few studies have(More)
Populations encompassing extremes of age, including neonates and elderly, have greater mortality from sepsis. We propose that the increased mortality observed in the neonatal and elderly populations after sepsis is due to fundamental differences in host-protective immunity and is manifested at the level of the leukocyte transcriptome. Neonatal (5-7 d),(More)
The elderly are particularly susceptible to trauma, and their outcomes are frequently dismal. Such patients often have complicated clinical courses and ultimately die of infection and sepsis. Recent research has revealed that although elderly subjects have increased baseline inflammation as compared with their younger counterparts, the elderly do not(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of immature myeloid cells whose numbers dramatically increase in chronic and acute inflammatory diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disease, trauma, burns and sepsis. Studied originally in cancer, these cells are potently immunosuppressive, particularly in their ability to suppress(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), including natural CD4+CD25+ Tregs and inducible IL-10 producing T regulatory type 1 (T(R)1) cells, maintain tolerance and inhibit autoimmunity. Recently, increased percentages of Tregs have been observed in the blood of septic patients, and ex vivo-activated Tregs were shown to prevent polymicrobial sepsis mortality. Whether(More)
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to microbial infection, induces changes in both innate and adaptive immunity that presumably lead to increased susceptibility to secondary infections, multiorgan failure, and death. Using a model of murine polymicrobial sepsis whose severity approximates human sepsis, we examined outcomes and defined requirements(More)
Microbes activate pattern recognition receptors to initiate adaptive immunity. T cells affect early innate inflammatory responses to viral infection, but both activation and suppression have been demonstrated. We identify a novel role for B cells in the early innate immune response during bacterial sepsis. We demonstrate that Rag1(-/-) mice display(More)
The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful(More)
Organ dysfunction is a major concern in sepsis pathophysiology and contributes to its high mortality rate. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in endothelial damage and take part in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in several conditions. NETs also have an important role in counteracting invading microorganisms during infection.(More)
Viruses are the most common source of infection among immunocompetent individuals, yet they are not considered a clinically meaningful risk factor among the critically ill. This work examines the association of viral infections diagnosed during the hospital stay or not documented as present on admission to the outcomes of ICU patients with no evidence of(More)