Philip A. Routledge

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Many studies from around the world show a correlation between increasing age and adverse drug reaction (ADR) rate, at least for some medical conditions. More than 80% of ADRs causing admission or occurring in hospital are type A (dose-related) in nature, and thus predictable from the known pharmacology of the drug and therefore potentially avoidable. Frail(More)
AIMS To synthesize data from published studies and international experience to identify evidence of potential benefits and drawbacks of direct patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by patients. METHODS Structured search of MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO supplemented by internet searches and requests for information to key contacts. (More)
The normal metabolism of drugs can generate metabolites that have intrinsic chemical reactivity towards cellular molecules, and therefore have the potential to alter biological function and initiate serious adverse drug reactions. Here, we present an assessment of the current approaches used for the evaluation of chemically reactive metabolites. We also(More)
Fifty patients with venous thromboembolic disease being treated by heparin infusion received a three day warfarin induction regimen tailored according to the prothrombin time (British comparative ratio) measured on days 2 and 3. A prediction of the final maintenance dose of warfarin was made on the basis of a prothrombin time measured on day 4. All patients(More)
Details of admissions to a dedicated district poisons treatment unit in South Glamorgan were analysed to assess changes in self-poisoning patterns between 1987-1988 and 1992-1993. Self-poisoning rates increased in both men and women, with male rates showing a relatively larger increase, resulting in a fall in female to male ratio for person-based rates from(More)
BACKGROUND Between 7% and 48% of cancer patients report taking herbal medicines after diagnosis. Because of the possibility of unwanted side effects or interactions with conventional treatments, people with cancer are generally advised to tell the professionals treating them if they are taking any form of medication, including herbal medicines and(More)
AIMS The effect of a distance-learning package linked to educational credits on the rate and quality of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting by general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists in Wales was investigated. METHODS In April 2000, 477 GPs and 261 pharmacists enrolled in the 12 month programme. RESULTS The number and quality of yellow(More)
The plasma protein binding of diazepam and lidocaine was measured in patients with renal disease (those with uremia, nephrotic syndrome, or who had received a transplant) and in age- and sex- matched control subjects. Percentage unbound diazepam in plasma was increased over control in all three groups of patients as follows: uremic patients 3.23%, control,(More)
The concentration of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured in plasma from 200 healthy subjects belonging to 78 family units. The AAG concentration varied markedly between individuals (mean 0.77, range 0.36-1.46 g 1(-1]. When the genetic contribution to the variability was assessed, the only significant correlation observed was that between husband(More)