Philip A. Durkee

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Emissions of particles, gases, heat, and water vapor from ships are discussed with respect to their potential for changing the microstructure of marine stratiform clouds and producing the phenomenon known as ''ship tracks.'' Airborne measurements are used to derive emission factors of SO 2 and NO from diesel-powered and steam turbine-powered ships, burning(More)
Under stable meteorological conditions the effect of ship-stack exhaust on overlying clouds was detected in daytime satellite images as an enhancement in cloud reflectivity at 3.7 micrometers. The exhaust is a source of cloud-condensation nuclei that increases the number of cloud droplets while reducing droplet size. This reduction in droplet size causes(More)
Anomalously high reflectivity tracks in stratus and stratocumulus sheets associated with ships (known as ship tracks) are commonly seen in visible and near-infrared satellite imagery. Until now there have been only a limited number of in situ measurements made in ship tracks. The Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiment, which was conducted off the coast(More)
We report on clear-sky column closure experiments (CLEARCOLUMN) performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present CLEARCOLUMN results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ (optical particle counter, nephelometer, and absorption photo-meter) measurements taken aboard(More)
The authors investigate the extent to which the contrast brightness of ship tracks, that is, the relative change in observed solar reflectance, in visible and near-infrared imagery can be explained by the microphysics of the background cloud in which they form. The sensitivity of visible and near-infrared wavelengths for detecting reflectance changes in(More)
The effects of anthropogenic particulate emissions from ships on the radiative, microphysical, and chemical properties of moderately polluted marine stratiform clouds are examined. A case study of two ships in the same air mass is presented where one of the vessels caused a discernible ship track while the other did not. In situ measurements of cloud(More)
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A remotely piloted aircraft research facility is described that will provide new capabilities for atmospheric and oceanographic measurements. The aircraft can fly up to 24 h over remote ocean regions, at low or high altitude, and in various other challenging mission scenarios. The aircraft will fly research missions at speeds of 40 m s-1 and provide high(More)