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Lampreys are generally reported to spawn in shallow water on open, gravel bottoms. During surveys in Wisconsin and Minnesota, we regularly observed aggregations of adult Ichthyomyzon c.f. gagei, I. castaneus, and I. fossor beneath such cover objects as boulders, woody debris, and, at one site, vegetation. In some cases, observations of eggs or rapid(More)
The hypothesis that parasitic lampreys actively select larger host fish was tested with previously published laboratory data for Petromyzon marinus and new data for Ichthyomyzon castaneus. Whereas in previous work, expected attack frequencies were proportional to the number of potential hosts in each size group (numbers-dependent null hypothesis), the(More)
Snakes are capable of surviving long periods without food. In this study we characterized the microbiota of a Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), devoid of digesta, living in the wild. Pyrosequencing-based metagenomics were used to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles with the aid of the MG-RAST server. Pyrosequencing of samples taken from the(More)
Sample of stomach contents collected on 10 dates from May to October, 1978, were used to describe the diet and estimate the daily ration of subadult largemouth bass (primarily age-III fish) in Lake Rebecca, Minnesota. The method of Elliott & Persson (1978) was used to estimate daily ration. Data from sources in the literature were used to quantify gastric(More)
Distribution of attachment sites varies with the species of lamprey being considered. Large anadromous species (Petromyzon marinus and Lampetra tridentata) tend to attach ventrally, especially near the pectoral fins, while smaller freshwater species in shallow habitats (Ichthyomyzon castaneus and I. unicuspis) and species that feed on muscle tissue(More)
We examined relative abundance, distribution, and gut contents of Phoxinus eos and P. neogaeus in a small northern Michigan bog lake. P. eos were usually 5–100 x more abundant than P. neogaeus, but both species were more abundant near the lake margin than offshore. Both species fed primarily on algae and invertebrates associated with the bog mat, but(More)
Laboratory and field data suggest that several species of parasitic lampreys forage primarily at night, but data forPetromyzon marinus are equivocal. Nocturnal foraging may minimize predation risk. This may be particularly important to those species of lampreys that inhabit shallow streams. Nocturnal foraging also may enhance foraging efficiency if(More)
We present evidence that at least some parasitic-phase silver lampreys, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, and chestnut lampreys, I. castaneus, remain attached to host fish during the winter. Lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, harvested through the ice by spearfishers in the Lake Winnebago system in Wisconsin may bear silver lampreys or fresh lamprey wounds, and(More)
In certain species of fish, such as rainbow trout, infection by the Firmicutes Lactococcus garvieae is problematic. This organism is the causative agent of lactococcosis disease in fish, and it is also considered a potential zoonotic bacterium, since it can cause several opportunistic infections in humans. In this study, L. garvieae strain TRF1 was grown(More)
Silver Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis) in the Wisconsin River attached within the branchial cavity of Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) significantly more often (6.5% of 1,578 attachments) than would be expected by chance on the basis of its relative surface area (3.7%), with as many as four lampreys found together within the branchial cavity of the same(More)