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We present a method to form an optical window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without causing brain inflammation. This enabled us to repeatedly image blood flow in cortical capillaries of awake mice and determine long-range correlations in speed. We also repeatedly imaged dendritic spines, microglia and angioarchitecture,(More)
It is well known that the density of neurons varies within the adult brain. In neocortex, this includes variations in neuronal density between different lamina as well as between different regions. Yet the concomitant variation of the microvessels is largely uncharted. Here, we present automated histological, imaging, and analysis tools to simultaneously(More)
A highly interconnected network of arterioles overlies mammalian cortex to route blood to the cortical mantle. Here we test if this angioarchitecture can ensure that the supply of blood is redistributed after vascular occlusion. We use rodent parietal cortex as a model system and image the flow of red blood cells in individual microvessels. Changes in flow(More)
What is the nature of the vascular architecture in the cortex that allows the brain to meet the energy demands of neuronal computations? We used high-throughput histology to reconstruct the complete angioarchitecture and the positions of all neuronal somata of multiple cubic millimeter regions of vibrissa primary sensory cortex in mouse. Vascular networks(More)
We present a method to produce vascular disruptions within rat brain parenchyma that targets single microvessels. We used two-photon microscopy to image vascular architecture, to select a vessel for injury and to measure blood-flow dynamics. We irradiated the vessel with high-fluence, ultrashort laser pulses and achieved three forms of vascular insult. (i)(More)
Microinfarctions are present in the aged and injured human brain. Their clinical relevance is controversial, with postulated sequelae ranging from cognitive sparing to vascular dementia. To address the consequences of microinfarcts, we used controlled optical methods to create occlusions of individual penetrating arterioles or venules in rat cortex. Single(More)
As a means to automate the three-dimensional histological analysis of brain tissue, we demonstrate the use of femtosecond laser pulses to iteratively cut and image fixed as well as fresh tissue. Cuts are accomplished with 1 to 10 microJ pulses to ablate tissue with micron precision. We show that the permeability, immunoreactivity, and optical clarity of the(More)
MPScope is a software suite to control and analyze data from custom-built multiphoton laser scanning fluorescence microscopes. The acquisition program MPScan acquires, displays and stores movies, linescans, image stacks or arbitrary regions from up to four imaging channels and up to two analog inputs, while plotting the intensity of regions of interest in(More)
Pial arterioles actively change diameter to regulate blood flow to the cortex. However, it is unclear whether arteriole reactivity and its homeostatic role of conserving red blood cell (RBC) flux remains intact after a transient period of ischemia. To examine this issue, we measured vasodynamics in pial arteriole networks that overlie the stroke penumbra(More)
We present a two-photon microscope that images the full extent of murine cortex with an objective-limited spatial resolution across an 8 mm by 10 mm field. The lateral resolution is approximately 1 µm and the maximum scan speed is 5 mm/ms. The scan pathway employs large diameter compound lenses to minimize aberrations and performs near theoretical limits.(More)