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We previously reported that melatonin prevents neuronal cell death in ischemic brain injury through the activation of Akt and the inhibition of apoptotic cell death. We investigated whether melatonin inhibits the apoptotic signal through the activation of a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase and its downstream target, S6 phosphorylation.(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is a health hazard that is associated with a number of diseases and metabolic abnormalities, such as type-2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium flavonoids (CAF) on the inhibition of adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1(More)
Dopamine D1 receptors have critical neuromodulatory influences on the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, a brain region affected in many neuropsychiatric disorders. When D1 receptor agents are administered to rats or monkeys performing working memory tasks, an "inverted U" dose/response function is typically observed, whereby either too(More)
Ferulic acid protects neuronal cells from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and focal cerebral ischemia. This study investigated whether ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets, Bad and 14-3-3. Adult male rats were immediately treated with ferulic acid (100mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery(More)
Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase(More)
Estradiol protects neuronal cells against permanent and focal ischemic brain damage. We identified the proteins that are expressed following estradiol administration during cerebral ischemia in an animal model. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and treated with oil or estradiol prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce cerebral(More)
Melatonin is an antioxidant that has neuroprotective functions in ischemic brain injury. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine and threonine phosphatase that modulates cell metabolism and cell survival. This study investigated whether melatonin modulates PP2A subunit B in focal cerebral ischemia and glutamate toxicity-induced neuronal cell death in a(More)
Melatonin has anti-oxidant activity and it exerts a neuroprotective effects during ischemic brain injury. Calcium-buffering proteins including parvalbumin and hippocalcin are involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation through calcium signaling. This study investigated whether melatonin moderates parvalbumin and hippocalcin expression in cerebral(More)
Nicotinamide is an important cofactor in the prevention of brain damage during focal cerebral ischemia. Hippocalcin is a calcium buffer protein that modulates intracellular calcium concentration and attenuates apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether nicotinamide modulates hippocalcin expression during cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
We previously showed that estradiol prevents neuronal cell death through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets Bad and FKHR. This study investigated whether estradiol modulates the survival pathway through other downstream targets of Akt, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase. It is known that mTOR is a downstream target(More)