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North American railways have traditionally practiced tonnage-based dispatching, running trains only when they have enough freight. As a result, their customer service and their use of crews, fixed assets, locomotives, and railcars are poor. Canadian Pacific Railway is using new decision-support tools developed in-house and by MultiModal Applied Systems to… (More)
The author examines the implications for the immigrant population of the European Community's plans for closer union in 1992. "After considering the positions that European institutions have taken regarding non-citizens' political rights in the EC, I trace the development of an active immigrant political role at the European level since the early 1970s."