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It is shown that the classical laws of thermodynamics require that mechanical systems must exhibit energy that becomes unavailable to do useful work. In thermodynamics, this type of energy is called entropy. It is further shown that these laws require two metrical manifolds, equations of motion, field equations, and Weyl's quantum principles. Weyl's quantum(More)
A new method for the purification of DNA on blood-stained cards was developed. This method was implemented into a high-throughput automated system using a Biomek 1000 robotic workstation. In addition, the processes of DNA purification and amplification were coupled into a completely automated and uninterrupted prototype system, and the resultant PCR(More)
We have used DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) to study the genetic variation of bermudagrass (Cynodon) species and cultivars of interspecific crosses that exhibit leaf-blade textural characteristics ranging from coarse to fine. Arbitrary octamer primers produced complex and reproducible amplification profiles with high levels of polymorphic DNA.(More)
The Hubble Telescope should make it possible to separate the redshift of light from any cosmological object into that redshift due to the gravitational potential difference between the emission and reception points and that portion due the distance between these points by comparing the redshifts measured on the Earth's surface to redshifts measured by the(More)
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a new, high-resolution tool for the analysis of DNA restriction fragments and DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By combining many of the principles of traditional slab gel methods in a capillary format, it is possible to perform molecular size determinations of human and plant PCR amplification products(More)
Commercially available capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems offer advantages over traditional slab gel methodologies. The capillary format allows the use of higher voltages (225 V/cm), which results in faster migration, higher resolution and greater efficiency without excessive heating. The ability to automate the system increases the unattended sample(More)
The analysis of crude polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is often compromised by the presence of a high concentration of salt. Salt interferes with the electrokinetic injection and induces localized heating within the column, hence, PCR products must be desalted or cleaned-up prior to CE analysis. A variety of(More)