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In this paper definitive evidence that the classical class I product, HLA-C, is expressed on the surface of normal trophoblast cells is provided. HLA-C transcripts were sequenced from cDNA isolated from first trimester trophoblast cells obtained by flow cytometric sorting. Both paternal and maternal alleles were transcribed. HLA-C proteins were demonstrated(More)
BACKGROUND To prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation, pulmonary venous isolation (PVI) at an antral level is more effective than segmental ostial ablation. Cryoablation around the pulmonary venous (PV) ostia for AF therapy is potentially safer compared to radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The aim of this study was to investigate(More)
AIMS Recurrent arrhythmias after ablation procedures are often caused by recovery of ablated tissue. Robotic catheter manipulation systems increase catheter tip stability which improves energy delivery and could produce more transmural lesions. We tested this assertion using bipolar voltage attenuation as a marker of lesion quality comparing robotic and(More)
BACKGROUND Post ablation atrial tachycardias are characterized by low-voltage signals that challenge current mapping methods. Ripple mapping (RM) displays every electrogram deflection as a bar moving from the cardiac surface, resulting in the impression of propagating wavefronts when a series of bars move consecutively. RM displays fractionated signals in(More)
Determining locations of focal arrhythmia sources and quantifying myocardial conduction velocity (CV) are two major challenges in clinical catheter ablation cases. CV, wave-front direction and focal source location can be estimated from multipolar catheter data, but currently available methods are time-consuming, limited to specific electrode(More)
To characterize pulmonary vein (PV) anatomy and the relative position of the PV ostia to the adjacent thoracic vertebral bodies, two readers reviewed 176 computed tomography pulmonary venous studies. PV ostial dimensions were measured and PV ovality assessed. Anatomical variations in PV drainage were noted. The position of the PV ostium relative to the(More)
BACKGROUND Localizing the origin of outflow tract ventricular tachycardias (OTVT) is hindered by lack of accuracy of electrocardiographic (ECG) algorithms and infrequent spontaneous premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) during electrophysiological studies. OBJECTIVES To prospectively assess the performance of noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping(More)
INTRODUCTION Robotic remote catheter ablation potentially provides improved catheter-tip stability, which should improve the efficiency of radiofrequency energy delivery. Percentage reduction in electrogram peak-to-peak voltage has been used as a measure of effectiveness of ablation. We tested the hypothesis that improved catheter-tip stability of robotic(More)
BACKGROUND Left atrial (LA) ganglionated plexi (GP) are part of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system and implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. High frequency stimulation is used to identify GP sites in humans. The effect of ablation on neural pathways connecting GPs in humans is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Thirty patients(More)
INTRODUCTION The induction of atrial fibrillation (AF) by pulmonary vein (PV) ectopy is well described. The triggers for these PV ectopy are not so well understood. The intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been suggested as a potential upstream regulator that may cause PV ectopy and atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that activation(More)