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OBJECTIVES Post-traumatic olfactory loss (PTOL) is the third most common aetiology for olfactory disorders. Mechanisms that lead to post-traumatic olfactory disorders include sinonasal affections, damage to the olfactory nerve and lesions of the cerebral olfactory centres. The purpose of this review is to present an update of this condition and to present a(More)
GOALS To give an overview on the theoretical and practical applications of chemosensory event-related potentials. METHODS Chemosensory event-related potentials (ERPs) may be elicited by brief and precisely defined odorous stimuli. Based on the principles of air-dilution olfactometry, a stimulator was developed in the late 1970s, which allows stimulation(More)
The olfactory bulb collects the sensory afferents of the olfactory receptor cells located in the olfactory neuroepithelium. The olfactory bulb ends with the olfactory tract and is closely related to the olfactory sulcus of the frontal lobe. Many studies demonstrated that olfactory bulb volume assessed with magnetic resonance imaging is related to the(More)
Olfactory loss is considered as idiopathic (IOL) when no cause can be found, neither on the basis of a standardized history nor a thorough clinical evaluation. Olfactory bulb volume (OB) has been shown to be decreased in patients with olfactory loss due to trauma, infections, or sinonasal disease. However, OB volume has not yet been investigated in IOL(More)
While the effects of early visual deprivation on auditory and tactile functions have been widely studied, little is known about olfactory function in early blind subjects. The present study investigated the potential effect of early blindness on the electrophysiological correlates of passive odour perception. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in(More)
TOPIC Olfactory dysfunction may be assessed in the clinic with psychophysical testing and electrophysiological recording. Chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs) constitute an objective method to assess chemosensory function. Olfactory and trigeminal stimuli activate chemoreceptors from the olfactory neuroepithelium and from the nasal mucosa to evoke(More)
Hearing processing and communication abilities development may be influenced by chronic inflammation of the airways in children, especially in case of otitis media and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The present review summarizes the influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on speech abilities as well as the consequences of otitis media, with a particular(More)
Numerous techniques are available in the clinic for the investigation of chemosensory function. Psychophysical testing using orthonasal and retronasal stimulation routes may help to distinguish anosmic from hyposmic patients. These psychophysical tests are most frequently used for odour identification and odour threshold. Chemosensory event-related(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical usefulness of olfactory event-related brain potentials (OERPs) to assess olfactory function is limited by the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the responses identified using conventional time-domain averaging. Recently, it was shown that time-frequency analysis of the obtained EEG signals can markedly improve the(More)