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Visual cortical neurons fire at higher rates to visual stimuli during locomotion than during immobility, while maintaining orientation selectivity. The mechanisms underlying this change in gain are not understood. We performed whole-cell recordings from layer 2/3 and layer 4 visual cortical excitatory neurons and from parvalbumin-positive and(More)
Low-frequency thalamocortical oscillations that underlie drowsiness and slow-wave sleep depend on rhythmic inhibition of relay cells by neurons in the reticular nucleus (RTN) under the influence of corticothalamic fibers that branch to innervate RTN neurons and relay neurons. To generate oscillations, input to RTN predictably should be stronger so(More)
Although many genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been identified, the biological mechanism(s) remain unclear. Mouse models based on human disease-causing mutations provide the potential for understanding gene function and novel treatment development. Here, we characterize a mouse knockout of the Cntnap2 gene, which is strongly(More)
During neocortical development, neurons exhibit highly synchronized patterns of spontaneous activity, with correlated bursts of action potential firing dominating network activity. This early activity is eventually replaced by more sparse and decorrelated firing of cortical neurons, which modeling studies predict is a network state that is better suited for(More)
Subtle alterations in how cortical network dynamics are modulated by different behavioral states could disrupt normal brain function and underlie symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Using two-photon calcium imaging and electrophysiology, we recorded spontaneous neuronal ensemble activity in mouse somatosensory cortex.(More)
Declarative memories are thought to be stored within anatomically distributed neuronal networks requiring the hippocampus; however, it is unclear how neocortical areas participate in memory at the time of encoding. Here, we use a c-fos-based genetic tagging system to selectively express the channelrhodopsin variant, ChEF, and optogenetically reactivate a(More)
Fast spiking, parvalbumin (PV) expressing hippocampal interneurons are classified into basket, axo-axonic (chandelier), and bistratified cells. These cell classes play key roles in regulating local circuit operations and rhythmogenesis by releasing GABA in precise temporal patterns onto distinct domains of principal cells. In this study, we show that each(More)
Endogenous brain rhythms occurring at various frequencies and associated with distinct behavioral states provide multiscale temporal windows that enable cells to time their spiking activity with high precision, which is thought to be important for the coding of information in neuronal circuits. However, although the selective timing of GABAergic inputs to(More)
Several models of associative learning predict that stimulus processing changes during association formation. How associative learning reconfigures neural circuits in primary sensory cortex to "learn" associative attributes of a stimulus remains unknown. Using 2-photon in vivo calcium imaging to measure responses of networks of neurons in primary(More)
The transcriptional mechanisms governing the development and plasticity of somatopic sensory maps in the cerebral cortex have not been extensively studied. In particular, no studies have addressed the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of sensory maps. DNA methylation is one the main epigenetic mechanisms available to mammalian cells to(More)