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BACKGROUND Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor correlates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP).(More)
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), react to endotoxins like bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with a pronounced inflammatory response. To avoid excess damage to the CNS, the microglia inflammatory response needs to be tightly regulated. Here we report that a single LPS challenge results in a prolonged blunted(More)
Exploration is an elementary and fundamental form of learning about the structure of the world [1-3]. Little is known about what exactly is learned when an animal seeks to become familiar with the environment. Navigating animals explore the environment for safe return to an important place (e.g., a nest site) and to travel between places [4]. Flying(More)
This work proposes a clustering technique to analyze evoked potential signals. The proposed method uses an orthogonal subspace model to enhance the single-trial signals of a session and simultaneously a subspace measure to group the trials into clusters. The ensemble averages of the signals of the different clusters are compared with ensemble averages of(More)
Rats are highly skilled in discriminating objects and textures by palpatory movements of their whiskers. If they used spatial frequency cues, they would be able to optimize performance in a stimulus dependent way-by moving their whisker faster or slower across the texture surface, thereby shifting the frequency content of the neuronal signal toward an(More)
Both brain-resident microglia and peripheral macrophages/monocytes infiltrate into glioma and promote glioma growth. In the present study we analyzed coupling and membrane currents in glioma-associated microglia and macrophages/monocytes and compared this to control and stab wound-associated microglia. Using the Cx3cr1(GFP/wt)Ccr2(RFP/wt) knock-in mouse(More)
Mission statement: The goal of Neuro-Oncology is to provide the international neuro-oncology community with high-quality, rapid publication of information in all fields. The journal welcomes submissions from throughout the world and encourages the participation of neuro-oncologists in a wide array of subspecialities. Reply to " Association between radiation(More)
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