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Postembedding immunogold labeling was used to determine the relationship between AMPA and NMDA receptor density and size of Schaffer collateral-commissural (SCC) synapses of the adult rat. All SCC synapses expressed NMDA receptors. AMPA and NMDA receptors were colocalized in at least 75% of SCC synapses; the ratio of AMPA to NMDA receptors was a linear(More)
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK, also called Maxi-K or Slo channels) are widespread in the vertebrate nervous system, but their functional roles in synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. By combining electrophysiology and immunogold cytochemistry, we demonstrate the existence of functional BK channels in(More)
Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed strong monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) labeling of Purkinje cell bodies and punctate labeling in the molecular layer. By immunogold cytochemistry, it could be demonstrated that the MCT2 immunosignal was concentrated at postsynaptic densities of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. The distribution of MCT2(More)
The aquaporin-4 (AQP4) pool in the perivascular astrocyte membranes has been shown to be critically involved in the formation and dissolution of brain edema. Cerebral edema is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke. It is therefore essential to know whether the perivascular pool of AQP4 is up- or down-regulated after an ischemic insult, because(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Once released, it is removed from the extracellular space by cellular uptake catalyzed by GABA transporter proteins. Four GABA transporters (GAT1, GAT2, GAT3 and BGT1) have been identified. Inhibition of the GAT1 by the clinically available anti-epileptic drug(More)
Calcium-activated potassium channels have been shown to be critically involved in neuronal function, but an elucidation of their detailed roles awaits identification of the microdomains where they are located. This study was undertaken to unravel the precise subcellular distribution of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (called BK,(More)
BACKGROUND Statistical methods that use the mid-p approach are useful tools to analyze categorical data, particularly for small and moderate sample sizes. Mid-p tests strike a balance between overly conservative exact methods and asymptotic methods that frequently violate the nominal level. Here, we examine a mid-p version of the McNemar exact conditional(More)
Tissue- and cell-specific deletion of the Aqp4 gene is required to differentiate between the numerous pools of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels. A glial-conditional Aqp4 knockout mouse line was generated to resolve whether astroglial AQP4 controls water exchange across the blood-brain interface. The conditional knockout was driven by the glial fibrillary(More)
Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) have increased basal concentrations of extracellular glutamate in the epileptogenic versus the non-epileptogenic hippocampus. Such elevated glutamate levels have been proposed to underlie the initiation and maintenance of recurrent seizures, and a key question is what causes the elevation of glutamate in(More)
Changes in the vesicular transmitter content modulate synaptic strength and may contribute to synaptic plasticity. Several transporters mediating transmitter uptake into small synaptic vesicles (SSVs) have been identified but their regulation is largely unknown. Here we show by quantitative immunoelectron microscopy that the heterotrimeric G-protein(More)