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Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have fundamental functions in the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that these molecules may also have non-immune functions in the nervous system, in particular related to synaptic function and plasticity. Because adult motoneurons express mRNAs for MHC class I molecules, we have examined(More)
The kinetics of calcium dissociation from wild-type bovine calbindin D9k (the smallest protein known with a pair of EF-hand calcium-binding sites) and five mutants with single amino-acid substitutions and/or deletions has been studied by stopped-flow fluorescence methods, using the calcium chelator Quin 2. The modifications are confined to the N-terminal(More)
Mass cytometry enables an unprecedented number of parameters to be measured in individual cells at a high throughput, but the large dimensionality of the resulting data severely limits approaches relying on manual "gating." Clustering cells based on phenotypic similarity comes at a loss of single-cell resolution and often the number of subpopulations is(More)
There is considerable heterogeneity in immunological parameters between individuals, but its sources are largely unknown. To assess the relative contribution of heritable versus non-heritable factors, we have performed a systems-level analysis of 210 healthy twins between 8 and 82 years of age. We measured 204 different parameters, including cell population(More)
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin represents the most common malignancy in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small regulatory RNAs with pleiotropic function, are commonly misregulated in cancer. Here we identify miR-203, a miRNA abundantly and preferentially expressed in skin, to be downregulated in BCCs. We show that activation of the Hedgehog (HH) pathway,(More)
Murine natural killer (NK) cells express inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, which allows for "missing self" recognition of cells that downregulate MHC class I expression. During murine NK cell development, host MHC class I molecules impose an "educating impact" on the NK cell pool. As a result, mice with different MHC class I expression(More)
Protein engineering is a means of probing the role of electrostatic interactions in protein functions; this elegant technique has been applied to the elucidation of electrostatic effects in enzyme catalysis. Here we show how the use of mutant proteins allows the determination of the contributions of individual charges to the free energy of ion binding to(More)
BACKGROUND A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. Infected or transformed target cells frequently downmodulate MHC class I molecules and can thus avoid CD8(+) T cell attack, but may at the same time develop NK cell sensitivity, due to failure to(More)
The two Ca(2+)-binding sites in calbindin D9k, a protein belonging to the calmodulin superfamily of intracellular proteins, have slightly different structure. The C-terminal site (amino acids 54-65) is a normal EF-hand as in the other proteins of the calmodulin superfamily, while the N-terminal site (amino acids 14-27) contains two additional amino acids,(More)
The Natural Killer (NK) cell population is composed of subsets of varying sizes expressing different combinations of inhibitory receptors for MHC class I molecules. Genes within the NK gene complex, including the inhibitory receptors themselves, seem to be the primary intrinsic regulators of inhibitory receptor expression, but the MHC class I background is(More)