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Information processing is a cognitive trait forming the basis of complex abilities like executive function. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a well-established test of information processing with moderate to high heritability. Age of the individual also plays an important role. A number of genetic association studies with the TMT have been performed, which,(More)
Innate immunity is critically dependent on the rapid production of interferon in response to intruding viruses. The intracellular pathogen recognition receptors RIG-I and MDA5 are essential for interferon induction by viral RNAs containing 5' triphosphates or double-stranded structures, respectively. Viruses with a negative-stranded RNA genome are an(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-sectional findings in community surveys of adults suggest that adolescent anxiety disorders are strong predictors of the subsequent onset of alcohol use, abuse and dependence. However, prospective data that follow a sample of adolescents into adulthood are needed to confirm these associations. METHOD Baseline and 4-year follow-up data(More)
OBJECTIVE The binding protein FKBP5 is an important modulator of the function of the glucocorticoid receptor, the main receptor of the stress hormone system. This turns the FKBP5 gene into a key candidate for gene-environment interactions, which are considered critical for pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. The authors explored gene-environment(More)
The lifetime prevalence of panic disorder (PD) is up to 4% worldwide and there is substantial evidence that genetic factors contribute to the development of PD. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TMEM132D, identified in a whole-genome association study (GWAS), were found to be associated with PD in three independent samples, with a two-SNP haplotype(More)
AIM To explore the role of cannabis use for the availability of ecstasy as a potential pathway to subsequent first ecstasy use. METHODS Baseline and 4-year follow-up data from a prospective-longitudinal community study of originally 3021 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline were assessed using the standardized M-CIDI and DSM-IV(More)
CONTEXT There is growing evidence that major depressive disorder (MDD) might be overdiagnosed at the expense of bipolar disorder (BPD). OBJECTIVES To identify a subgroup of subthreshold BPD among DSM-IV MDD, which is distinct from pure MDD regarding a range of validators of bipolarity, and to examine the pattern of these validators among different groups(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the present article is to explore interaction and correlation effects between familial depression liability and selected adverse (separation and traumatic) events in predicting the first onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) in a 10-year prospective longitudinal community survey. METHODS Analyses are based on 1982 subjects (14 to(More)
BACKGROUND In depressed patients, overstimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, probably caused by glucocorticoid receptor resistance, is the most consistent neurobiological finding. Glucocorticoids themselves are reported to increase leptin synthesis and secretion in humans. METHODS We examined alterations in plasma levels of(More)
OBJECTIVE Although somatoform disorders are assumed to be chronic clinical conditions, epidemiological knowledge on their natural course based on representative samples is not available. METHOD Data come from a prospective epidemiologic study of adolescents and young adults in Munich, Germany. Respondents' diagnoses (N = 2548) at baseline and follow-up on(More)