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The frequencies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein-specific CD8 T cells, identified by the presence of intracellular IFN-gamma, were measured by flow cytometry following stimulation of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with comprehensive peptide pools. These pools spanned the entire amino acid sequences of the HCMV pp65 and(More)
Neutralization of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-1 (IL-1), decreases mortality in several animal models of sepsis. However, recent clinical trials did not show an unequivocal improvement in survival. In contrast to animals, which succumb to shock during the first 72 hours, we found that many(More)
RATIONALE Sustained sepsis-associated immunosuppression is associated with uncontrolled infection, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. OBJECTIVES In the first controlled biomarker-guided immunostimulatory trial in sepsis, we tested whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reverses monocyte deactivation, a hallmark of(More)
BACKGROUND Tryptophan (Trp) is catabolized by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Changes in Trp metabolism and IDO activity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been widely studied, and the impact of haemodialysis is uncertain. Here we investigate Trp catabolism, IDO activity and the role of inflammation in moderate to very severe CKD and haemodialysis.(More)
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation. Treatment with rituximab, a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has proved to be a promising approach and shown a low toxicity profile. Between February 1999 and April 2002, we conducted a multicentre phase II trial(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokine gene polymorphisms may have an impact on the susceptibility to and progression of chronic periodontitis. In this study, we analyzed the -1082 interleukin-10 (IL-10), -308 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) (codons 10 and 25), -174IL-6, and +874 interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene(More)
PTLD is a severe complication in transplant recipients. Detection of increased EBV load in the peripheral blood acts as a surrogate marker for increased risk of PTLD development. We analyzed the time course of the disease, its severity, the organs involved, and mortality rates in our institutional experience of pediatric heart transplantation. This paper(More)
There is growing evidence that adaptive immunity contributes to endogenous regeneration processes: For example, endogenous bone fracture repair is modulated by T cells even in the absence of infection. Because delayed or incomplete fracture healing is associated with poor long-term outcomes and high socioeconomic costs, we investigated the relationship(More)
BACKGROUND Recently we have demonstrated that the nondepleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) RIB5/2 induces long-term acceptance of kidney and heart allografts in all rat strain combinations tested. Cytokine gene expression studies by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a reversed intragraft interleukin (IL)-4/interferon-gamma(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and/or hepatocytes in absence of HCV RNA in serum, designated as 'occult HCV infection', has been a matter of controversy in recent years. We investigated for the first time the prevalence of occult HCV infection in large cohorts of chronic hemodialysis(More)