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Neutralization of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-1 (IL-1), decreases mortality in several animal models of sepsis. However, recent clinical trials did not show an unequivocal improvement in survival. In contrast to animals, which succumb to shock during the first 72 hours, we found that many(More)
RATIONALE Sustained sepsis-associated immunosuppression is associated with uncontrolled infection, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. OBJECTIVES In the first controlled biomarker-guided immunostimulatory trial in sepsis, we tested whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reverses monocyte deactivation, a hallmark of(More)
T cells are crucial for the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in infected individuals. Although CMV-specific T cells can be quantified by various methods, clear correlates of protection from CMV disease have not been defined. However, responses to the pp65 protein are believed to play an important role. Here, the proportions of interferon gamma-producing T(More)
Cell-mediated immunity plays an essential role in the control of infection with the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). However, only a few CD8(+)-T-cell epitopes are known, with the majority being contained in the pp65 phosphoprotein, which is believed to dominate the CD8(+)-T-cell response to HCMV. Here, we have readdressed the issue of CD8(+) T cells specific(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokine gene polymorphisms may have an impact on the susceptibility to and progression of chronic periodontitis. In this study, we analyzed the -1082 interleukin-10 (IL-10), -308 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) (codons 10 and 25), -174IL-6, and +874 interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene(More)
Inflammatory cells, in particular monocytes/macrophages, release pro-inflammatory mediators in response to several infectious and non-infectious stimuli. The excessive release of these mediators, resulting in the development of whole body inflammation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. TNF-alpha, acting(More)
The frequencies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein-specific CD8 T cells, identified by the presence of intracellular IFN-gamma, were measured by flow cytometry following stimulation of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with comprehensive peptide pools. These pools spanned the entire amino acid sequences of the HCMV pp65 and(More)
BACKGROUND Although the incidence of early acute rejection could have been diminished in the past, the long-term renal allograft survival could not benefit from the introduction of more effective immunosuppressive regimens mainly aiming at cellular rejection mechanisms. The cause of chronic rejection is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate(More)
BACKGROUND Tryptophan (Trp) is catabolized by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Changes in Trp metabolism and IDO activity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been widely studied, and the impact of haemodialysis is uncertain. Here we investigate Trp catabolism, IDO activity and the role of inflammation in moderate to very severe CKD and haemodialysis.(More)
PTLD is a severe complication in transplant recipients. Detection of increased EBV load in the peripheral blood acts as a surrogate marker for increased risk of PTLD development. We analyzed the time course of the disease, its severity, the organs involved, and mortality rates in our institutional experience of pediatric heart transplantation. This paper(More)