Petra M. Schwarz

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The role of nitric oxide (NO) generated by the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is very complex. Induction of iNOS expression and hence NO production has been described to have beneficial antiviral, antiparasital, microbicidal, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral effects. However, induced at the wrong place or at the wrong time, iNOS has(More)
Three isozymes of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (EC 1.14.13.39) have been identified and the cDNAs for these enzymes isolated. In humans, isozymes I (in neuronal and epithelial cells), II (in cytokine-induced cells), and III (in endothelial cells) are encoded for by three different genes located on chromosomes 12, 17, and 7, respectively. The deduced amino(More)
Cyclooxygenase 2-selective inhibitors (coxibs) and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events. The current study was designed to test the effect of coxibs and nonselective NSAIDs on vascular superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) production. mRNA expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)(More)
Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids is associated with mild to moderate hypertension. We reported previously that downregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression and activity is likely to contribute to this increase in blood pressure. In the present study, we tested the effects of dexamethasone on the vasodilation of microvascular(More)
A high intake of polyphenolic compounds is likely to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Especially red wine is a rich source of polyphenols, and we have previously shown that French red wine upregulates eNOS, a protective enzyme in the cardiovascular system. The current study tested (poly)phenolic constituents of red wine for their(More)
Hypertension is a side effect of systemically administered glucocorticoids, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Ingestion of dexamethasone by rats telemetrically instrumented increased blood pressure progressively over 7 days. Plasma concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) and urinary Na(+) and K(+) excretion remained constant,(More)
Of the three established isoforms of NO synthase, the gene for the neuronal-type enzyme (NOS I) is by far the largest and most complicated one. The genomic locus of the human NOS I gene is located on chromosome 12 and distributed over a region greater than 200 kb. The nucleotide sequence corresponding to the major neuronal mRNA transcript is encoded by 29(More)
Infectious diarrhea is often caused by the exotoxins of gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. However, these organisms also contain lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. LPS induces nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II, inducible NOS) in various types of cells. We now demonstrate by RNase protection analysis, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry that(More)
This study was designed to evaluate whether the enzymes of the nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway, nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase, are functionally coupled in controlling catecholamine secretion in primary cultures of bovine chromaffin cells. In immunocytochemical studies, 80-85% of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive chromaffin cells also(More)