Learn More
Mechanosensitive channels are ubiquitous amongst bacterial cells and have been proposed to have major roles in the adaptation to osmotic stress, in particular in the management of transitions from high to low osmolarity environments. Electrophysiological measurements have identified multiple channels in Escherichia coli cells. One gene, mscL, encoding a(More)
The populations of dominant species within the human colonic microbiota can potentially be modified by dietary intake with consequences for health. Here we examined the influence of precisely controlled diets in 14 overweight men. Volunteers were provided successively with a control diet, diets high in resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides(More)
The microbial community of the human colon contains many bacteria that produce lactic acid, but lactate is normally detected only at low concentrations (<5 mM) in feces from healthy individuals. It is not clear, however, which bacteria are mainly responsible for lactate utilization in the human colon. Here, bacteria able to utilize lactate and produce(More)
Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant(More)
The pH of the colonic lumen varies with anatomical site and microbial fermentation of dietary residue. We have investigated the impact of mildly acidic pH, which occurs in the proximal colon, on the growth of different species of human colonic bacteria in pure culture and in the complete microbial community. Growth was determined for 33 representative human(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that the human intestinal microbiota contributes to the aetiology of colorectal cancer (CRC), not only via the pro-carcinogenic activities of specific pathogens but also via the influence of the wider microbial community, particularly its metabolome. Recent data have shown that the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate(More)
The microbial communities that colonize different regions of the human gut influence many aspects of health. In the healthy state, they contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of nondigestible dietary components in the large intestine, and a balance is maintained with the host's metabolism and immune system. Negative consequences,(More)
The final steps in butyrate synthesis by anaerobic bacteria can occur via butyrate kinase and phosphotransbutyrylase or via butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. Degenerate PCR and enzymatic assays were used to assess the presence of butyrate kinase among 38 anaerobic butyrate-producing bacterial isolates from human feces that represent three(More)
Prebiotics are food ingredients that improve health by modulating the colonic microbiota. The bifidogenic effect of the prebiotic inulin is well established; however, it remains unclear which species of Bifidobacterium are stimulated in vivo and whether bacterial groups other than lactic acid bacteria are affected by inulin consumption. Changes in the(More)
Dietary carbohydrates have the potential to influence diverse functional groups of bacteria within the human large intestine. Of 12 Bifidobacterium strains of human gut origin from seven species tested, four grew in pure culture on starch and nine on fructo-oligosaccharides. The potential for metabolic cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and(More)