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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures have shown to be sensitive to white matter (WM) damage in multiple sclerosis (MS), not only inside focal lesions but also in user-defined regions in the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). New analysis techniques for DTI measures are now available that allow for hypothesis-free localization of damage. We(More)
Abbreviations DTI Diffusion tensor imaging FA Fractional anisotropy FWE Family-wise error TBSS Tract-based spatial statistics To the Editor: Type 1 diabetes, particularly in the presence of microangiopathy, is associated with cognitive dysfunction, mainly observed in domains involving processing speed, suggesting white matter involvement [1]. White matter(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively compare the depiction of intracortical lesions by using multislab three-dimensional (3D) double inversion-recovery (DIR), multislab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Local ethics review board(More)
PURPOSE To investigate normal-appearing white (NAWM) and cortical gray (NAGM) matter separately in multiple sclerosis (MS) in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS In 64 MS patients (12 primary progressive [PP], 38 relapsing remitting [RR], 14 secondary progressive [SP]) and 20 healthy controls, whole-brain apparent diffusion(More)
Creatine transporter deficiency is an X-linked mental retardation disorder caused by mutations in the creatine transporter gene, SLC6A8. In a European Mental Retardation Consortium panel of 66 patients, we identified a male with mental retardation, caused by a c.1059_1061delCTT; p.Phe354del mutation in the SLC6A8 gene. With the use of direct DNA sequencing,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cortical lesions constitute a substantial part of the total lesion load in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. They have been related to neuropsychological deficits, epilepsy, and depression. However, the proportion of purely cortical lesions visible on MR images is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively investigate whether T1 changes in normal-appearing white matter (WM) and normal-appearing gray matter (GM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are global or regional and their relationship to disease type. MATERIALS AND METHODS The institutional ethics review board approved study; written informed consent was obtained. Whole-brain T1 maps(More)
OBJECTIVE Cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) are notoriously difficult to visualize with standard MR imaging (MRI) techniques. However, the use of higher field-strengths with intrinsically higher signal-to-noise, which can partly be used to increase spatial resolution, may improve cortical lesion detection. Therefore, in this post mortem study, the(More)
Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) is routinely used as a marker for inflammation in MRI to visualize breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis. Recent data suggest that ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) can be used to visualize cellular infiltration, another aspect of inflammation. This project aimed to compare the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate changes in hippocampal functional connectivity and structural measures of hippocampal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with intact spatial memory, a cognitive domain frequently affected in progressive MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics review board; all subjects gave(More)