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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures have shown to be sensitive to white matter (WM) damage in multiple sclerosis (MS), not only inside focal lesions but also in user-defined regions in the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). New analysis techniques for DTI measures are now available that allow for hypothesis-free localization of damage. We(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively compare the depiction of intracortical lesions by using multislab three-dimensional (3D) double inversion-recovery (DIR), multislab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Local ethics review board(More)
PURPOSE To investigate normal-appearing white (NAWM) and cortical gray (NAGM) matter separately in multiple sclerosis (MS) in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS In 64 MS patients (12 primary progressive [PP], 38 relapsing remitting [RR], 14 secondary progressive [SP]) and 20 healthy controls, whole-brain apparent diffusion(More)
We identified eight patients with a distinct magnetic resonance imaging pattern of inhomogeneous cerebral white matter abnormalities and selective involvement of brainstem and spinal tracts. Proton magnetic resonance imaging showed increased lactate in the abnormal white matter. Clinically, the patients had slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and(More)
INTRODUCTION The segmentation and volumetric quantification of white matter (WM) lesions play an important role in monitoring and studying neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or cerebrovascular disease. This is often interactively done using 2D magnetic resonance images. Recent developments in acquisition techniques allow for 3D imaging(More)
Creatine transporter deficiency is an X-linked mental retardation disorder caused by mutations in the creatine transporter gene, SLC6A8. In a European Mental Retardation Consortium panel of 66 patients, we identified a male with mental retardation, caused by a c.1059_1061delCTT; p.Phe354del mutation in the SLC6A8 gene. With the use of direct DNA sequencing,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cortical lesions constitute a substantial part of the total lesion load in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. They have been related to neuropsychological deficits, epilepsy, and depression. However, the proportion of purely cortical lesions visible on MR images is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively investigate whether T1 changes in normal-appearing white matter (WM) and normal-appearing gray matter (GM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are global or regional and their relationship to disease type. MATERIALS AND METHODS The institutional ethics review board approved study; written informed consent was obtained. Whole-brain T1 maps(More)
Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) is routinely used as a marker for inflammation in MRI to visualize breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis. Recent data suggest that ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) can be used to visualize cellular infiltration, another aspect of inflammation. This project aimed to compare the(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance, associated with increased lipolysis, results in a high exposure of nonadipose tissue to lipids. Experimental data indicate that fatty infiltration of pancreatic islets may also contribute to beta-cell dysfunction, but whether this occurs in humans in vivo is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using proton magnetic resonance(More)