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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been shown to rescue cultured neurons from excitotoxic and hypoxic cell death and to reduce infarct size after focal cerebral ischemia in mice and rabbits. The present study investigated the effects of TGF-beta 1 in a different pathophysiological setting and the delayed neuronal death(More)
We have considered the extracellular serine protease thrombin and its receptor as endogenous mediators of neuronal protection against brain ischemia. Exposure of gerbils to prior mild ischemic insults, here two relatively short-lasting occlusions (2 min) of both common carotid arteries applied at 1-day intervals 2 days before a severe occlusion (6 min),(More)
A variety of extracellular serine proteases are expressed in the central nervous system or might permeate the blood-brain barrier under pathological conditions. However, their intracerebral targets and physiological functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that four distinct subtypes of protease-activated receptors (PARs) are abundantly expressed in the(More)
Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the(More)
PURPOSE The present study clarified the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in rats with vascular dementia (VaD) and explored the underlying mechanisms. METHODS Two-vessel occlusion was used as a VaD model. Two weeks after carotid artery occlusion, high (5 Hz) or low (1 Hz) frequency rTMS were applied for 10 days. Spatial(More)
Regarding regenerative strategies early post-ischemic therapeutic interventions might have a great impact on further pathophysiological cascades. To understand the early post-ischemic events we analyzed proliferation and neurogenesis as early as on day 3 after transient global ischemia in rats. Evaluations were performed not only in the dorsal hippocampus,(More)
With in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON), single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can be visualized non-invasively, repeatedly, in real-time and under natural conditions. Here we report the use of ICON to visualize dynamic changes in RGC morphology, connectivity and functional activation using calcium markers, and to visualize nanoparticle transport across(More)
Prothrombin, protease-activated receptors (PARs) and the specific thrombin inhibitor protease nexin-1 (PN-1) are expressed in the brain. Recent studies have shown that the serine protease thrombin, depending on its concentration, plays an important role in neuronal degeneration or protection after cerebral ischemia. However, it is still uncertain whether a(More)
It has been shown previously that clenbuterol, a beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, enhances NGF synthesis in adult rat brain. Since NGF is able to protect neurons against damage, we tried to find out whether clenbuterol can rescue cultured hippocampal neurons from excitotoxic damage by induction of NGF. The neuroprotective activity of clenbuterol on(More)
Vision loss after retinal or cerebral visual injury (CVI) was long considered to be irreversible. However, there is considerable potential for vision restoration and recovery even in adulthood. Here, we propose the "residual vision activation theory" of how visual functions can be reactivated and restored. CVI is usually not complete, but some structures(More)